Figure 1
The three osmolytes investigated in this study: TMAO (pKa = 4.6-4.7; Lin & Timasheff, 1994BB37; Qu, 2003BB67), sarcosine (pKa = 2.2, 10.0; Dawson et al., 1959BB11) and betaine (pKa = 1.8; Dawson et al., 1959BB11). All are zwitterionic over nearly the whole pH range studied.  [article HTML]

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