Phase diagrams for the seven proteins that crystallized with TMAO, listed in order of increasing isoelectric point. Vertical axis, TMAO concentration in M. Horizontal axis (see trypsin diagram), buffer used with pH of the 1 M buffer stock solution below the two-letter code (AC, sodium acetate; CA, citric acid; MA, malic acid; ME, MES; BT, bis-tris; TR, Tris; BA, boric acid; CA, CAPS). Left, Screen 1: TMAO–pH. Right, Screen 2: TMAO–pH with 0.2 M salt additives. The crystal form is indicated numerically, precipitate is indicated by a bullet (•) and blank cells indicate neither precipitate nor crystals. The pH of the well solution is indicated by shading (see trypsin diagram; 6, pH 5.9–6.9; 7, pH 7.0–7.9; 8, pH 8.0–8.9; 9, pH 9.0–9.9; >=10, pH 10.0–11.9). The phase diagrams were based on observations made 6–8 weeks after tray setup.