metal-organic compounds\(\def\hfill{\hskip 5em}\def\hfil{\hskip 3em}\def\eqno#1{\hfil {#1}}\)

Journal logoCRYSTALLOGRAPHIC
COMMUNICATIONS
ISSN: 2056-9890

μ-(2,2′-Bi­pyrimidine)-bis­­[di­chlorido­palladium(II)] di­methyl­formamide monosolvate

aDepartment of Chemistry, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa
*Correspondence e-mail: technetium3006@hotmail.com

(Received 14 September 2012; accepted 27 September 2012; online 20 October 2012)

In the title compound, [Pd2Cl4(C8H6N4)]·C3H7NO, the two Pd2+ cations have a distorted square-planar coordination sphere and are bridged by a bis-bidentate 2,2′-bipyrimidine ligand. Two terminal chloride anions are also bonded to each of the Pd2+ cations. The dinuclear complex and the dimethylformamide solvate molecule lie on the inter­section of a twofold rotation axis and a mirror plane, with disorder present in the solvate mol­ecule. There is a slight distortion from the square-planar metal geometry, as indicated by the bite angles of 81.77 (13)° and 91.63 (5)°. The C and O atoms of the solvent mol­ecule are disordered over two sets of sites of equal occupancy.

Related literature

The title compound is structurally related to the mono-coord­inated species reported by Hudgens et al. (1997[Hudgens, T., Johnson, D., Cordes, W., Barclay, T. & Jeter, D. (1997). J. Chem. Crystallogr. 27, 247-250.]). For background literature on homogenous catalyst models, see: Van Leeuwen (2004[Van Leeuwen, P. (2004). Homogenous Catalysis. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.]); Meij et al. (2005[Meij, A. M. M., Otto, S. & Roodt, A. (2005). Inorg. Chim. Acta, 358, 1005-1011.]); Otto et al. (2003[Otto, S., Roodt, A. & Elding, L. I. (2003). Dalton Trans. pp. 2519-2525.]); Steyn et al. (1997[Steyn, G. J. J., Roodt, A. & Poletaeva, I. (1997). J. Organomet. Chem. 536, 197-205.]). For related structures, see: Inagaki et al. (2007[Inagaki, A., Yatsuda, S., Edure, S., Suzuki, A., Takahashi, T. & Akita, M. (2007). Inorg. Chem. 7, 2432-45.]); Maekawa et al. (1994[Maekawa, M., Munkata, M., Kuroda-Sowa, T. & Motokawa, M. (1994). Anal. Sci. 10, 977-978.]). The mono-coordinated platinum counterpart was reported by Kawakami et al. (2006[Kawakami, D., Yamashita, M., Matsunaga, S., Takaishi, S., Kajiwara, T., Miyasaka, H., Sugiura, K., Matsuzaki, H., Okamoto, H., Wakabayashi, Y. & Sawa, H. (2006). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 7214-7217.]). For the synthetic procedure, see: Boyle et al. (2004[Boyle, R. C., Mague, J. T. & Fink, M. J. (2004). Acta Cryst. E60, m40-m41.]).

[Scheme 1]

Experimental

Crystal data
  • [Pd2Cl4(C8H6N4)]·C3H7NO

  • Mr = 578.81

  • Monoclinic, C 2/m

  • a = 10.7299 (6) Å

  • b = 14.2399 (7) Å

  • c = 5.9381 (3) Å

  • β = 108.229 (2)°

  • V = 861.76 (8) Å3

  • Z = 2

  • Mo Kα radiation

  • μ = 2.71 mm−1

  • T = 100 K

  • 0.09 × 0.09 × 0.08 mm

Data collection
  • Bruker APEXII diffractometer

  • Absorption correction: multi-scan (SADABS; Bruker, 2008)[Bruker (2008). APEX2, SAINT-Plus and SADABS. Bruker AXS Inc, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.] Tmin = 0.785, Tmax = 0.814

  • 6102 measured reflections

  • 1108 independent reflections

  • 975 reflections with I > 2σ(I)

  • Rint = 0.041

Refinement
  • R[F2 > 2σ(F2)] = 0.028

  • wR(F2) = 0.059

  • S = 1.11

  • 1108 reflections

  • 68 parameters

  • H-atom parameters constrained

  • Δρmax = 0.75 e Å−3

  • Δρmin = −0.79 e Å−3

Data collection: APEX2 (Bruker, 2008)[Bruker (2008). APEX2, SAINT-Plus and SADABS. Bruker AXS Inc, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.]; cell refinement: SAINT-Plus (Bruker, 2008[Bruker (2008). APEX2, SAINT-Plus and SADABS. Bruker AXS Inc, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.]); data reduction: SAINT-Plus; program(s) used to solve structure: SHELXS97 (Sheldrick, 2008[Sheldrick, G. M. (2008). Acta Cryst. A64, 112-122.]); program(s) used to refine structure: SHELXL97 (Sheldrick, 2008[Sheldrick, G. M. (2008). Acta Cryst. A64, 112-122.]); molecular graphics: DIAMOND (Brandenburg & Putz, 2005)[Brandenburg, K. & Putz, H. (2005). DIAMOND. Crystal Impact GbR, Bonn, Germany.]; software used to prepare material for publication: WinGX (Farrugia, 1999[Farrugia, L. J. (1999). J. Appl. Cryst. 32, 837-838.]).

Supporting information


Comment top

Although a wide variety of metals are used in catalysis today, the platinum group metals show the most promising catalytic properties (Van Leeuwen (2004). Unfortunately, knowledge surrounding the actual catalysis process on a molecular level is minimal. Various platinum group metals which find application in heterogeneous catalysis are dispersed onto supports with little control. Consequently, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of using bridging ligands ensure that metals are well dispersed in a controllable fashion. The insight gained by exploring bridged platinum group metals could contribute to ongoing homogeneous catalyst models of the metal complex. (Meij et al. (2005), Otto et al. (2003) Steyn et al. (1997)).

The compound crystallizes in a monoclinic C2/m space group with Z = 2. Both palladium atoms are situated on a twofold rotation axis and three carbon atoms, namely C11, C13 and C22 lie on a mirror plane. O22 of the DMF solvate molecule is situated on a twofold rotation axis and N22 on both a mirror plane and a rotation axis, which essentially gives N22 an occupation of 25%. As a result of the symmetry in the molecule there are only twelve atoms, including the hydrogen atoms, in the asymmetric unit. The geometry of the palladium centers is slightly distorted from the square planar geometry. This is illustrated by the N1—Pd01—N1c and Cl11—Pd01—Cl11c angles which are 81.77 (13)° and 91.63 (5)° respectively. The bond lengths and angles for the title compound are comparable to those in literature (Inagaki et al. (2007), Maekawa et al. (1994)). The palladium-nitrogen bonds of 2.05 Å are marginally longer than the mono-coordinated palladium complex (Hudgens et al. (1997)) which has a bond length of 1.99 Å. The Pd—Pd intra-molecular bond distances of 5.47 Å, is slightly shorter than the 5.62 Å for the platinum counterpart (Kawakami et al. (2006)).

Related literature top

The title compound is structurally related to the mono-coordinated species reported by Hudgens et al. (1997). For background literature on homogenous catalytic catalyst models, see: Van Leeuwen (2004); Meij et al. (2005); Otto et al. (2003); Steyn et al. (1997). For related structures, see: Inagaki et al. (2007); Maekawa et al. (1994). The mono-coordinated platinum counterpart was reported by Kawakami et al. (2006). For the synthetic procedure, see: Boyle et al. (2004).

Experimental top

The title compound was prepared by the modification of the published procedure by Boyle et al. (2004). PdCl2 (0.200 g, 1,13 x 10 -3 mol) was dissolved in boiling acetonitrile. 2,2-Bipyrimidine (0.092 g, 5.71 x 10 -4 mol) was added to the solution. Upon addition a yellow precipitate formed. Yield: 0.244 g (85%). 1H NMR ((CD3)2SO): δ 7.9 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 9.3 (dd, J = 5.1 Hz, 4H). IR (ATR): 1589 (vC—H),1137 (vC—N), 813 (vAr—H).

Refinement top

The aromatic, methine, and methyl H atoms were placed in geometrically idealized positions (C—H = 0.93–0.98) and constrained to ride on their parent atoms with Uιso (H) = 1.2Ueq(C) for the aromatic protons. The highest residual electron density was located 0.55 Å from C13 and was essentially meaningless.

Computing details top

Data collection: APEX2 (Bruker, 2008); cell refinement: SAINT-Plus (Bruker, 2008); data reduction: SAINT-Plus (Bruker, 2008); program(s) used to solve structure: SHELXS97 (Sheldrick, 2008); program(s) used to refine structure: SHELXL97 (Sheldrick, 2008); molecular graphics: DIAMOND (Brandenburg & Putz, 2005); software used to prepare material for publication: WinGX (Farrugia, 1999).

Figures top
[Figure 1] Fig. 1. Diamond representation of the title compound, showing the numbering scheme and displacement ellipsoids (50% probability).
µ-(2,2'-Bipyrimidine)-bis[dichloridopalladium(II)] dimethylformamide monosolvate top
Crystal data top
[Pd2Cl4(C8H6N4)]·C3H7NOF(000) = 550
Mr = 578.81Dx = 2.231 Mg m3
Monoclinic, C2/mMo Kα radiation, λ = 0.71073 Å
Hall symbol: -C 2yCell parameters from 1958 reflections
a = 10.7299 (6) Åθ = 2.9–27.8°
b = 14.2399 (7) ŵ = 2.71 mm1
c = 5.9381 (3) ÅT = 100 K
β = 108.229 (2)°Cuboid, red
V = 861.76 (8) Å30.09 × 0.09 × 0.08 mm
Z = 2
Data collection top
Bruker APEXII
diffractometer
1108 independent reflections
Radiation source: sealed tube975 reflections with I > 2σ(I)
Graphite monochromatorRint = 0.041
phi and ω scansθmax = 28.3°, θmin = 3.6°
Absorption correction: multi-scan
(SADABS; Bruker, 2008)
h = 1214
Tmin = 0.785, Tmax = 0.814k = 1818
6102 measured reflectionsl = 77
Refinement top
Refinement on F2Primary atom site location: structure-invariant direct methods
Least-squares matrix: fullSecondary atom site location: difference Fourier map
R[F2 > 2σ(F2)] = 0.028Hydrogen site location: inferred from neighbouring sites
wR(F2) = 0.059H-atom parameters constrained
S = 1.11 w = 1/[σ2(Fo2) + (0.0172P)2 + 2.5414P]
where P = (Fo2 + 2Fc2)/3
1108 reflections(Δ/σ)max < 0.001
68 parametersΔρmax = 0.75 e Å3
0 restraintsΔρmin = 0.79 e Å3
Crystal data top
[Pd2Cl4(C8H6N4)]·C3H7NOV = 861.76 (8) Å3
Mr = 578.81Z = 2
Monoclinic, C2/mMo Kα radiation
a = 10.7299 (6) ŵ = 2.71 mm1
b = 14.2399 (7) ÅT = 100 K
c = 5.9381 (3) Å0.09 × 0.09 × 0.08 mm
β = 108.229 (2)°
Data collection top
Bruker APEXII
diffractometer
1108 independent reflections
Absorption correction: multi-scan
(SADABS; Bruker, 2008)
975 reflections with I > 2σ(I)
Tmin = 0.785, Tmax = 0.814Rint = 0.041
6102 measured reflections
Refinement top
R[F2 > 2σ(F2)] = 0.0280 restraints
wR(F2) = 0.059H-atom parameters constrained
S = 1.11Δρmax = 0.75 e Å3
1108 reflectionsΔρmin = 0.79 e Å3
68 parameters
Special details top

Geometry. All s.u.'s (except the s.u. in the dihedral angle between two l.s. planes) are estimated using the full covariance matrix. The cell s.u.'s are taken into account individually in the estimation of s.u.'s in distances, angles and torsion angles; correlations between s.u.'s in cell parameters are only used when they are defined by crystal symmetry. An approximate (isotropic) treatment of cell s.u.'s is used for estimating s.u.'s involving l.s. planes.

Refinement. Refinement of F2 against ALL reflections. The weighted R-factor wR and goodness of fit S are based on F2, conventional R-factors R are based on F, with F set to zero for negative F2. The threshold expression of F2 > 2σ(F2) is used only for calculating R-factors(gt) etc. and is not relevant to the choice of reflections for refinement. R-factors based on F2 are statistically about twice as large as those based on F, and R- factors based on ALL data will be even larger.

Fractional atomic coordinates and isotropic or equivalent isotropic displacement parameters (Å2) top
xyzUiso*/UeqOcc. (<1)
C110.50.4487 (3)0.50.0149 (8)
C120.5694 (3)0.3120 (2)0.6987 (6)0.0270 (8)
H120.61670.27930.83410.032*
C130.50.2637 (3)0.50.0370 (13)
H130.50.19840.50.044*
N10.5696 (2)0.40577 (17)0.6995 (4)0.0152 (5)
Cl110.72957 (8)0.61422 (6)1.23998 (14)0.0303 (2)
Pd010.65034 (3)0.50.96630 (6)0.01736 (12)
N220.5000.0288 (14)
O220.50.1536 (5)00.052 (2)0.5
C210.4476 (8)0.0853 (5)0.1298 (13)0.0356 (18)0.5
C220.4325 (11)00.2451 (19)0.053 (4)0.5
Atomic displacement parameters (Å2) top
U11U22U33U12U13U23
C110.013 (2)0.015 (2)0.018 (2)00.0063 (17)0
C120.0231 (18)0.0158 (15)0.035 (2)0.0002 (13)0.0007 (15)0.0069 (13)
C130.034 (3)0.012 (2)0.051 (3)00.008 (3)0
N10.0112 (12)0.0180 (12)0.0155 (13)0.0008 (10)0.0027 (10)0.0040 (10)
Cl110.0220 (4)0.0488 (5)0.0189 (4)0.0109 (4)0.0045 (3)0.0137 (4)
Pd010.01263 (19)0.0256 (2)0.01300 (18)00.00278 (13)0
N220.052 (4)0.016 (3)0.026 (3)00.025 (3)0
O220.095 (7)0.019 (4)0.064 (6)00.058 (6)0
C210.037 (5)0.038 (4)0.041 (4)0.001 (3)0.025 (4)0.002 (4)
C220.015 (5)0.123 (12)0.018 (5)00.003 (4)0
Geometric parameters (Å, º) top
C11—N1i1.335 (3)N22—C221.408 (11)
C11—N11.335 (3)N22—C22iv1.408 (11)
C11—C11ii1.462 (8)N22—C21v1.454 (8)
C12—N11.336 (4)N22—C21vi1.454 (8)
C12—C131.368 (4)N22—C211.454 (8)
C12—H120.93N22—C21iv1.454 (8)
C13—C12i1.368 (4)O22—C211.258 (9)
C13—H130.93O22—C21v1.258 (9)
N1—Pd012.050 (2)C21—C221.379 (9)
Cl11—Pd012.2682 (8)C21—C21v1.598 (16)
Pd01—N1iii2.050 (2)C22—C21vi1.379 (9)
Pd01—Cl11iii2.2682 (8)
N1i—C11—N1125.5 (4)C22iv—N22—C21vi122.4 (3)
N1i—C11—C11ii117.24 (18)C21v—N22—C21vi180.0 (3)
N1—C11—C11ii117.24 (18)C22—N22—C2157.6 (3)
N1—C12—C13120.4 (3)C22iv—N22—C21122.4 (3)
N1—C12—H12119.8C21v—N22—C2166.7 (6)
C13—C12—H12119.8C21vi—N22—C21113.3 (6)
C12—C13—C12i119.6 (4)C22—N22—C21iv122.4 (3)
C12—C13—H13120.2C22iv—N22—C21iv57.6 (3)
C12i—C13—H13120.2C21v—N22—C21iv113.3 (6)
C11—N1—C12117.1 (3)C21vi—N22—C21iv66.7 (6)
C11—N1—Pd01111.7 (2)C21—N22—C21iv180.0 (6)
C12—N1—Pd01131.1 (2)C21—O22—C21v78.9 (8)
N1—Pd01—N1iii81.77 (13)O22—C21—C22160.9 (9)
N1—Pd01—Cl11174.98 (7)O22—C21—N22107.2 (6)
N1iii—Pd01—Cl1193.29 (7)C22—C21—N2259.5 (5)
N1—Pd01—Cl11iii93.29 (7)O22—C21—C21v50.6 (4)
N1iii—Pd01—Cl11iii174.98 (7)C22—C21—C21v114.6 (6)
Cl11—Pd01—Cl11iii91.63 (5)N22—C21—C21v56.7 (3)
C22—N22—C22iv180.0000 (10)C21—C22—C21vi123.5 (10)
C22—N22—C21v122.4 (3)C21—C22—N2262.9 (5)
C22iv—N22—C21v57.6 (3)C21vi—C22—N2262.9 (5)
C22—N22—C21vi57.6 (3)
Symmetry codes: (i) x+1, y, z+1; (ii) x+1, y+1, z+1; (iii) x, y+1, z; (iv) x+1, y, z; (v) x+1, y, z; (vi) x, y, z.

Experimental details

Crystal data
Chemical formula[Pd2Cl4(C8H6N4)]·C3H7NO
Mr578.81
Crystal system, space groupMonoclinic, C2/m
Temperature (K)100
a, b, c (Å)10.7299 (6), 14.2399 (7), 5.9381 (3)
β (°) 108.229 (2)
V3)861.76 (8)
Z2
Radiation typeMo Kα
µ (mm1)2.71
Crystal size (mm)0.09 × 0.09 × 0.08
Data collection
DiffractometerBruker APEXII
diffractometer
Absorption correctionMulti-scan
(SADABS; Bruker, 2008)
Tmin, Tmax0.785, 0.814
No. of measured, independent and
observed [I > 2σ(I)] reflections
6102, 1108, 975
Rint0.041
(sin θ/λ)max1)0.666
Refinement
R[F2 > 2σ(F2)], wR(F2), S 0.028, 0.059, 1.11
No. of reflections1108
No. of parameters68
H-atom treatmentH-atom parameters constrained
Δρmax, Δρmin (e Å3)0.75, 0.79

Computer programs: APEX2 (Bruker, 2008), SAINT-Plus (Bruker, 2008), SHELXS97 (Sheldrick, 2008), SHELXL97 (Sheldrick, 2008), DIAMOND (Brandenburg & Putz, 2005), WinGX (Farrugia, 1999).

 

Acknowledgements

Financial assistance from the University of the Free State, NRF(THRIP) and Sasol is gratefully acknowledged, while Theunis Muller is thanked for the data collection.

References

First citationBoyle, R. C., Mague, J. T. & Fink, M. J. (2004). Acta Cryst. E60, m40–m41.  Web of Science CSD CrossRef IUCr Journals
First citationBrandenburg, K. & Putz, H. (2005). DIAMOND. Crystal Impact GbR, Bonn, Germany.
First citationBruker (2008). APEX2, SAINT-Plus and SADABS. Bruker AXS Inc, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
First citationFarrugia, L. J. (1999). J. Appl. Cryst. 32, 837–838.  CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals
First citationHudgens, T., Johnson, D., Cordes, W., Barclay, T. & Jeter, D. (1997). J. Chem. Crystallogr. 27, 247–250.  CrossRef CAS Web of Science
First citationInagaki, A., Yatsuda, S., Edure, S., Suzuki, A., Takahashi, T. & Akita, M. (2007). Inorg. Chem. 7, 2432–45.  Web of Science CSD CrossRef
First citationKawakami, D., Yamashita, M., Matsunaga, S., Takaishi, S., Kajiwara, T., Miyasaka, H., Sugiura, K., Matsuzaki, H., Okamoto, H., Wakabayashi, Y. & Sawa, H. (2006). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 7214–7217.  Web of Science CSD CrossRef CAS
First citationMaekawa, M., Munkata, M., Kuroda-Sowa, T. & Motokawa, M. (1994). Anal. Sci. 10, 977–978.  CrossRef CAS Web of Science
First citationMeij, A. M. M., Otto, S. & Roodt, A. (2005). Inorg. Chim. Acta, 358, 1005–1011.  Web of Science CSD CrossRef CAS
First citationOtto, S., Roodt, A. & Elding, L. I. (2003). Dalton Trans. pp. 2519–2525.  Web of Science CSD CrossRef
First citationSheldrick, G. M. (2008). Acta Cryst. A64, 112–122.  Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals
First citationSteyn, G. J. J., Roodt, A. & Poletaeva, I. (1997). J. Organomet. Chem. 536, 197–205.  CSD CrossRef Web of Science
First citationVan Leeuwen, P. (2004). Homogenous Catalysis. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are cited.

Journal logoCRYSTALLOGRAPHIC
COMMUNICATIONS
ISSN: 2056-9890
Follow Acta Cryst. E
Sign up for e-alerts
Follow Acta Cryst. on Twitter
Follow us on facebook
Sign up for RSS feeds