Journal of Applied Crystallography

Volume 30, Part 5 Number 2 (October 1997)


Cover illustration Cover illustration:

editorial



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 569    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897098865]

Editorial

A. M. Glazer


international union of crystallography



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 569-570    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897098853]

Tenth International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, Brazil


research papers



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 571-574    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001854]

Neutron Diffraction by the Flux Line Lattice in YBa2Cu3O7-[bold delta] Single Crystals

G. Brandstätter, H. W. Weber, T. Chattopadhyay, R. Cubitt, H. Fischer, M. Wylie, G. A. Emel'chenko and A. Wiedenmann

Synopsis: The temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in a superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-[bold delta] single crystal has been obtained in different fields by small-angle neutron diffraction.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 575-579    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001805]

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering from Anisotropic Single-Crystalline Materials

A. D. Sequeira, G. Kostorz and J. S. Pedersen

Synopsis: From analysis of two-dimensional SAS patterns of decomposing single-crystalline materials, one can extract important information on the evolution of the morphology and on the three-dimensional spatial arrangement of the precipitates from early stages of decomposition. The real-space information obtained from transmission electron microscopy complements excellently the reciprocal-space information extracted from SAS data.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 580-585    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001027]

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Investigations of Nanoscaled Microstructures

A. Wiedenmann

Synopsis: SANS is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for investigations of nanoscaled microstructures by in situ annealing and magnetic contrast variation on two amorphous multicomponent alloys.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 586-591    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002409]

Simultaneous SAS and 100 Experiments on Phase Decomposition and Reversion in Al-Li Binary Alloys

H. Okuda, I. Tanaka, K. Osamura, M. Osawa, K. Ito and Y. Amemiya

Synopsis: Simultaneous small-angle scattering (SAS)/100 experiments on the decomposition and reversion in Al-Li alloys have been performed. Relationships between SAS and 100 profiles are presented for the precipitation structure.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 592-596    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001374]

Partial Reversion of Small GP Zones in an Al-Zn Binary Alloy

H. Okuda, M. Tanaka, K. Osamura and Y. Amemiya

Synopsis: In situ reversion experiments on very small (1nm) GP zones in Al-Zn have been performed by using time-resolved synchrotron-radiation small-angle scattering measurements. A rapid increase in the Guinier radius with decreasing integrated intensity has been observed.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 597-601    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001295]

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Investigation of Precipitation in Single-Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy ZS26

P. Strunz, A. Wiedenmann, J. Zrník and P. Lukás

Synopsis: A small-angle neutron scattering study of the microstructure of ordered cuboidal [bold gamma]' precipitates in the heat-treated single-crystal Ni-based superalloy ZS26 is described.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 602-606    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001751]

Comparison of Small-Angle Neutron Scattering of [bold delta]' Precipitation in an Al-Li Alloy at a High-Flux Reactor and at a Pulsed-Neutron Source

G. Albertini, F. Carsughi, R. Coppola, R. K. Heenan and M. Stefanon

Synopsis: The small-angle neutron scattering results obtained from a steady-state reactor (at ILL, Grenoble, France) and from a pulsed source (at RAL, Didcot, Oxon, England) are compared. Good agreement was obtained although different acquisition techniques and different data-treatment procedures were used.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 607-612    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002203]

Microstructural Characterization of Materials for Nuclear Applications Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

R. Coppola, F. Fiori, M. Magnani and M. Stefanon

Synopsis: Small-angle neutron scattering has been successfully used for the microstructural characterization of a martensitic steel for fusion reactors.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 613-617    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001362]

Decomposition Kinetics of Bulk Amorphous Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 Alloys Studied by Computer Simulation and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

P. Uebele, A. Wiedenmann, H. Hermann and K. Wetzig

Synopsis: The decomposition kinetics of bulk amorphous Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 are studied with SANS and the results are interpreted with the aid of computer simulations. A distribution of the precipitates is found to be a possible explanation for the measured SANS data during annealing in the undercooled liquid regime.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 618-622    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001325]

Defect Structure of Ion-Irradiated Amorphous SiO2

Y. Eyal, R. Evron and Y. Cohen

Synopsis: Uniformly enhanced small-angle X-ray scattering intensities of amorphous SiO2, measured following irradiation at room temperature with low-fluence 320 keV H+ and He+ beams, suggest that the radiation-induced defect structure is compatible with the presence of essentially totally preserved instantaneously produced interstitial-like O and Si atoms and complementary O and Si vacancy-like sites.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 623-627    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001799]

Formation and Growth of Semiconductor PbTe Nanocrystals in a Borosilicate Glass Matrix

A. F. Craievich, O. L. Alves and L. C. Barbosa

Synopsis: The formation and mechanism of growth of PbTe nanocrystals embedded in a borosilicate glass matrix were studied by SAXS. The results concerning the time dependence of nanocrystal radius are compared with those obtained using optical absorption spectroscopy.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 628-632    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001337]

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study on Growth of AgCl Crystallites in Photochromic Glasses

U. E. Takatohi, D. R. S. Bittencourt and S. Watanabe

Synopsis: The additional absorbance spectra of samples exposed to ultraviolet light show that the silver colloid formation is possible only in samples that exhibit SAXS curves characteristic of well defined particles dispersed in glass.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 633-636    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001891]

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study of Nanocrystalline and Amorphous States of the Fe73.5CuNb3Si13.5B9 Alloy

D. R. dos Santos, I. L. Torriani, A. Y. Ramos and M. Knobel

Synopsis: Amorphous metallic ribbons produced with different quenching rates from the melt of Fe73.5CuNb3Si13.5B9 were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering. The structural evolution due to alloy crystallization was studied by SAXS measurements carried out in situ during isothermal annealing.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 637-641    [doi:10.1107/S002188989700191X]

Synchrotron Small-Angle X-ray Scattering of Colloids and Photonic Colloidal Crystals

M. Megens, C. M. van Kats, P. Bösecke and W. L. Vos

Synopsis: In situ experiments reveal the structure and lattice parameters of colloidal crystals and the internal structure of highly monodisperse colloidal particles. This is important for interpreting optical experiments.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 642-646    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001301]

Interface Evolution in a W/Si Multilayer after Rapid Thermal Annealing Studied by X-ray Reflectivity and Diffuse Scattering

M. Jergel, V. Holý, E. Majková, S. Luby and R. Senderák

Synopsis: X-ray reflectivity and interface diffuse scattering from a W/Si amorphous multilayer exposed to a series of rapid thermal annealings have been measured and the interface evolution studied up to the collapse of the multilayer stack.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 647-652    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001003]

Small-Angle Scattering of Heterogeneous Catalysts

A. Benedetti

Synopsis: A review of small-angle scattering results of heterogeneous catalysts is presented.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 653-658    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002422]

In Situ Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Investigation of Carbon-Supported Electrocatalysts

H.-G. Haubold, X. H. Wang, G. Goerigk and W. Schilling

Synopsis: Size distributions of electro-oxidized and reduced carbon- supported Pt catalyst particles are examined by in situ ASAXS studies in electrochemical cells.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 659-663    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001349]

Distribution of Pores in a-Si1-xCx:H Thin Films

R. J. Prado, D. R. S. Bittencourt, M. H. Tabacniks, M. C. A. Fantini, M. N. P. Carreño and I. Pereyra

Synopsis: This paper presents the size distribution function of voids in hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films deposited by PECVD from mixtures of silane and methane.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 664-669    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002434]

Isothermal Structural Evolution of SnO2 Monolithic Porous Xerogels

G. G. S. Brito, S. H. Pulcinelli, C. V. Santilli and A. F. Craievich

Synopsis: A small-angle X-ray scattering study of the isothermal evolution of nano and mesoporosities in monolithic SnO2 gels is presented.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 670-674    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002410]

Structure of ZrO2SiO2 Gels

O. Stachs, V. Petkov and Th. Gerber

Synopsis: The structure of ZrO2SiO2 gels starting from the parent molecular material via the resulting amorphous system up to the final crystalline structure was investigated using X-ray scattering methods and reverse Monte Carlo simulations.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 675-679    [doi:10.1107/S002188989700174X]

Influence of Aging and Dilution on the Crystallization of Silicalite-1

P. P. E. A. de Moor, T. P. M. Beelen and R. A. van Santen

Synopsis: In situ combined SAXS/WAXS experiments showed the aging time at room temperature to influence the crystallization kinetics at reaction temperature, but not the formation of colloidal aggregates. The reverse was observed upon dilution.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 680-683    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001532]

Investigation of Polymer Brushes and Adsorbed Layers under Shear

D. Nguyen, C. J. Clarke, A. Eisenberg, M. H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov and G. S. Smith

Synopsis: The effect of shear on the chain conformation in polymer brushes and adsorbed layers is discussed. A neutron reflection technique was used to probe the polymer profiles in situ under shear.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 684-689    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001520]

Ordering Phenomena in ABA Triblock Copolymer Gels

K. Reynders, N. Mischenko, R. Kleppinger, H. Reynaers, M. H. J. Koch and K. Mortensen

Synopsis: Formation of b.c.c. morphology of the network nodes in physical gels is controlled by the elastic interaction between them and depends on the conformation of the linking polymer chains.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 690-695    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002446]

The Morphology of Block Copolymer Micelles in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Small-Angle Neutron and X-ray Scattering

J. D. Londono, R. Dharmapurikar, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, D. Chillura-Martino and R. Triolo

Synopsis: The morphology of block copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide was studied via small-angle-scattering techniques as a function of solvent density, block length and concentration.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 696-701    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001404]

Pressure and Temperature Effects in Homopolymer Blends and Diblock Copolymers

H. Frielinghaus, D. Schwahn, K. Mortensen, L. Willner and K. Almdal

Synopsis: The temperature and pressure dependencies of thermal composition fluctuations were measured in a binary homopolymer blend and in a diblock copolymer by small-angle neutron scattering. The phase diagram, the Ginzburg number and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter were determined.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 702-707    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001921]

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of the Phase Behavior and Mesophases of Homopolymers, Block Copolymers and Complex Mixtures

K. Mortensen, K. Almdal, D. Schwahn and F. S. Bates

Synopsis: The phase behavior of polymer systems as studied by SANS and SAXS is reviewed. The review includes polymer blends, block copolymers and more complex systems like block copolymers mixed with homopolymers or selective solvents.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 708-711    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001556]

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering from Blends of PE and SBS. Observation of a Novel Kind of Deviation from Porod's Law

N. Stribeck, P. Ghioca and E. Buzdugan

Synopsis: In the SAXS of modified poly(ethylene) (blends) a peculiar and reproducible deviation from Porod's law is found. The strength of this effect is a function of blend composition.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 712-716    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001398]

Studies on Interaction Parameters of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in 1-Propanol-Water Mixtures by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

S. Shimizu, M. Kimura, T. Maruyama and K. Kurita

Synopsis: The interaction parameters were determined for SAXS measurement of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in mixed solvents. The contributions of the segment-segment interactions to the entropy and enthalpy have been calculated.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 717-721    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001763]

Structural Characterization of a Telechelic Ionomer at Various Degrees of Neutralization

D. R. S. Bittencourt, P. Charier, R. Jérôme and C. E. Williams

Synopsis: The morphology of sodium partially and totally neutralized carboxytelechelic ionomers has been characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering showing that the aggregates grow as more end chains are neutralized while keeping the electron density constant, in agreemeent with the multiplet model.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 722-726    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001568]

Studying the Microstructure of Unaged and Aged PVDF by Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering

N. Stribeck and S. Buchner

Synopsis: During service, extruded commercial PVDF loses plasticizer. Emerging voids and decreasing contrast between amorphous and crystalline phases result in considerable variations of the SAXS.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 727-732    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001064]

A Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study of the Lyotropic Nematic Phase of Vanadium Pentoxide Gels

P. Davidson, C. Bourgaux, P. Sergot and J. Livage

Synopsis: Aqueous suspensions of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) display a lyotropic nematic phase. Small-angle X-ray scattering gives useful information on the building blocks and the organization of this phase.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 733-738    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001155]

Measurement of Kinetics and Mechanisms of Phase Transitions in Lipid-Water Systems

P. J. Quinn

Synopsis: A description of different synchrotron radiation facilities available for the determination of phase states and mechanisms of phase transitions of polar lipids of biological significance in aqueous systems is given.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 739-743    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002860]

A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Investigation of the TDMAO Micelle System at High Hydrostatic Pressure

N. Gorski, J. Kalus, A. I. Kuklin and L. S. Smirnov

Synopsis: Small-angle neutron scattering was performed on rodlike tetra- decyldimethylaminoxide micelles in D2O at different temperatures and hydrostatic pressures up to 840 MPa.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 744-749    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001623]

Shear-Induced Structures in Concentrated Surfactant Micellar Phases

J. Penfold, E. Staples, I. Tucker, G. J. T. Tiddy and A. Khan Lodhi

Synopsis: Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to investigate shear-induced structures in concentrated micellar phases. In the lamellar phase of the non-ionic surfactant hexaethylene glycol monohexadecyl ether, a novel biaxial orientation of the lamellae with shear is observed, whereas for a cationic-non-ionic mixture, the shear-induced formation of multi-lamellar vesicles is observed.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 750-754    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001787]

Thermostimulated Sol-Gel Transition in Suspensions of Sulfate-Zirconium Oxychloride

L. A. Chiavacci, C. V. Santilli, S. H. Pulcinelli and A. F. Craievich

Synopsis: The SAXS study of thermostimulated sol-gel-sol transitions of aqueous solutions of zirconyl chloride modified by sulfuric acid gave evidence that gelation is due to electrostatic interaction during cluster-cluster aggregations.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 755-760    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001635]

Measurement and Interpretation of Curvatures of the Oil-Water Interface in Isometric Bicontinuous Microemulsions

S.-H. Chen and S.-M. Choi

Synopsis: The interfacial curvatures of oil-water interfaces in bicontinuous microemulsions were measured using small-angle neutron scattering.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 761-764    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001817]

SANS Studies of Octyl-[beta]-glucoside and Glycine Micellar Solutions

R. Giordano, G. Maisano and J. Teixeira

Synopsis: Small-angle neutron scattering experiments were performed on micellar solutions of octyl-[beta]-glucoside (OBG) in water and on solutions of OBG + glycine in water.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 765-769    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001775]

Position-Resolved Small-Angle X-ray Scattering of Complex Biological Materials

P. Fratzl, H. F. Jakob, S. Rinnerthaler, P. Roschger and K. Klaushofer

Synopsis: A system for position-resolved small-angle scattering on biological materials is described. The application is demonstrated with measurements on a human vertebra and on the branch of a spruce tree.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 770-775    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001581]

X-ray Scattering Studies of Metalloproteins in Solution: a Quantitative Approach for Studying Molecular Conformations, a Quantitative Approach for Studying Molecular Conformations.

J. Günter Grossmann and S. S. Hasnain

Synopsis: The usefulness of the X-ray method is explored for studying the structure of proteins in solution. In particular, de nuovo structure determination is investigated.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 776-780    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001386]

Structure and Thermotropic Behaviour of Mixed Choline Phospholipid Model Membranes

G. Degovics, A. Latal, E. Prenner, M. Kriechbaum and K. Lohner

Synopsis: Phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins are among the most abundant phospholipids of mammalian cell membranes and are major components of the lipid monolayer of lipoproteins. Their interaction has been studied by microcalorimetry and X-ray diffraction in order to characterize these biomembrane-mimetic systems.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 781-786    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001866]

Carbamyl Phosphate Modifies the T Quaternary Structure of Aspartate Transcarbamylase, thereby Facilitating the Structural Transition Associated with Cooperativity

L. Fetler, P. Tauc and P. Vachette

Synopsis: The quaternary structure transition of the allosteric enzyme ATCase has been titrated with various combinations of substrate analogues, using an area detector. The transition appears to be concerted regardless of the substrate analogues used. The ATCase-CP complex is shown to adopt a quaternary structure different from, although similar to, the T structure of the unligated enzyme.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 787-791    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002872]

Triple Isotopic Substitution Method in Small-Angle Neutron Scattering: Application to Some Problems of Structural Biology

I. N. Serdyuk and G. Zaccaï

Synopsis: The experimental possibilities of the triple isotopic substitution method in small-angle neutron scattering are investigated.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 792-797    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001039]

Restoring Three-Dimensional Structure of Biopolymers from Solution Scattering

D. I. Svergun

Synopsis: Novel approaches allowing the determination of the low-reso- lution shape and internal structure of biopolymers from solution-scattering data are reviewed.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 798-802    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001714]

Shape Determination from Solution Scattering of Biopolymers

D. I. Svergun, V. V. Volkov, M. B. Kozin, H. B. Stuhrmann, C. Barberato and M. H. J. Koch

Synopsis: Practical aspects of low-resolution shape determination are considered and examples of its applications for biopolymers in solution are presented.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 803-807    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897003348]

Calculation of Partial Specific Volumes and Other Volumetric Properties of Small Molecules and Polymers

H. Durchschlag and P. Zipper

Synopsis: The importance of volumetric properties and possible methods of predicting them are discussed. A universal approach, which allows the ab initio calculation of the volumes of different types of molecules, and special procedures for proteins are described in more detail.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 808-810    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001726]

The Influence of the Available Scattering Vector Range on the Retrieval of Particle-Size Distributions from Small-Angle Scattering Intensity Data

M. Mulato, D. Tygel and I. Chambouleyron

Synopsis: The determination of the particle-size distribution from small-angle scattering data is discussed.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 811-815    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001830]

ASSA, a Program for Three-Dimensional Rendering in Solution Scattering from Biopolymers

M. B. Kozin, V. V. Volkov and D. I. Svergun

Synopsis: A program for three-dimensional rendering and interactive model refinement that allows the display and manipulation of low-resolution and of atomic models is presented.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 816-821    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001040]

Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Combined with Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering

W. Bras and A. J. Ryan

Synopsis: Time-resolved simultaneous SAXS and WAXS experiments are described, with a discussion of problems encountered on third-generation synchrotron radiation sources.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 822-827    [doi:10.1107/S002188989700099X]

Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle Scattering. Morphology of Deposited Clusters and Nanostructure of Thin Films

A. Naudon and D. Thiaudiere

Synopsis: Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering of X-rays (GISAXS) is a nondestructive surface-analysis technique that allows size measurements of scattering entities of mesoscopic scale.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 828-832    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897002185]

Speckle Structure in Small-Angle Coherent X-ray Scattering

J. Mainville, F. Bley, F. Livet, E. Geissler, J. F. Legrand, D. Abernathy, G. Grübel, S. G. J. Mochrie and M. Sutton

Synopsis: A first feasibility study of intensity-fluctuation spectroscopy for small-angle coherent X-ray scattering is described. A polymer and a metallic alloy were used as test cases.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 833-838    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001167]

X-ray Standing Waves in X-ray Specular Reflection and Fluorescence Study of Nano-Films

S. I. Zheludeva, M. V. Kovalchuk, N. N. Novikova, A. N. Sosphenov, N. N. Salaschenko, E. A. Shamov, K. A. Prokhorov, E. Burattini and G. Cappuccio

Synopsis: It is demonstrated how interference phenomena at total reflection, leading to X-ray standing-wave generation and waveguide mode formation inside the layered structure and responsible for a modulation of X-ray reflection and fluorescence angular dependence, can be used for nano-film characterization.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 839-843    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001611]

Polarized Neutron Scattering from Polarized Nuclei Near Paramagnetic Centers

H. B. Stuhrmann, B. van den Brandt, P. Hautle, J. A. Konter, T. O. Niinikoski, M. Schmitt, R. Willumeit, J. Zhao and S. Mango

Synopsis: In dynamically polarized proton spin targets, reversal of nuclear polarization by adiabatic fast passage produces polarization gradients around paramagnetic centers. These can be used as labels in polarized neutron diffraction.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 844-848    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001271]

Double-Bent-Crystal Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Setting and its Applications

P. Strunz, J. Saroun, P. Mikula, P. Lukás and F. Eichhorn

Synopsis: Theoretical relations for optimum adjustments of a double-bent-crystal small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer, as well as for transformation of the cross section to the measured intensity, are described. The applicability of the technique in materials research is demonstrated.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 849-853    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001052]

The Use of a Multi-Double-Crystal Diffractometer to Investigate Nickel Domains

W. Treimer, A. Höfer and H. Strothmann

Synopsis: With a double-crystal diffractometer equipped with lamellae crystals as monochromator and analyzer, an intensity gain of 5.4 was realized and the investigation of Ni domains improved. A good estimate of the Bloch wall thickness can be given.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 854-856    [doi:10.1107/S002188989700188X]

Construction of a Two-Dimensional Ultra-Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Apparatus

T. Konishi, E. Yamahara, T. Furuta and N. Ise

Synopsis: A two-dimensional ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering apparatus was constructed using a rotating-anode X-ray generator and a Bonse-Hart camera with two sets of two channel-cut single crystals.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 857-861    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001179]

Absolute Calibration of Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Data of a Double-Crystal Diffractometer

F. Carsughi, D. Bellmann, J. Kulda, M. Magnani and M. Stefanon

Synopsis: A procedure is proposed to calibrate small-angle neutron scattering data collected at double-crystal diffractometers. It is based on the incident flux measured without sample. Data calibration is tested for the scattering of an Ni-based superalloy.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 862-866    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001878]

High-Angular-Resolution Camera Coupled with an Undulator Source at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility High-Brilliance Beamline

O. Diat, P. Bösecke, L. Lambard and P. P. E. A. de Moor

Synopsis: The performance of a high-angle-resolution small-angle scattering (USAXS) camera on the high-brilliance beamline ID2 at ESRF is exemplified.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 867-871    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001647]

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering at the ESRF High-Brilliance Beamline

P. Bösecke and O. Diat

Synopsis: The small-angle scattering station of the ESRF high-brilliance beamline (BL4/ID2) is described. Absolute scattering intensities are used to describe the achievable signal-to-background ratio.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 872-876    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001593]

Performance and First Results of the ELETTRA High-Flux Beamline for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

H. Amenitsch, S. Bernstorff, M. Kriechbaum, D. Lombardo, H. Mio, M. Rappolt and P. Laggner

Synopsis: A new high-flux wiggler beamline for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has been commissioned at ELETTRA, Trieste, Italy.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 877-879    [doi:10.1107/S002188989700160X]

Status of the Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Station at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

B. Dong, W. Sheng, H. Yang and Z. Zhang

Synopsis: A small-angle X-ray scattering instrument at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility is described along with the results of some studies of biomembranes.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 880-883    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001829]

The Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Beamline of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory

G. Kellermann, F. Vicentin, E. Tamura, M. Rocha, H. Tolentino, A. Barbosa, A. Craievich and I. Torriani

Synopsis: The design, construction and preliminary characterization of the LNLS beamline are described.



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J. Appl. Cryst. (1997). 30, 884-888    [doi:10.1107/S0021889897001738]

Performance of a New Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument at the Malaysian TRIGA Reactor

M. A. M. Sufi, S. Radiman, A. Wiedenmann and K. Mortensen

Synopsis: The set-up and alignment of a new small-angle neutron scattering instrument, installed at the 1 MW light-water-moderated MINT TRIGA research reactor, are described.


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