

Cover illustration: Molecular electrostatic potential of thymidine mapped on the charge density isosurface at 0.5 e Å^{3} using MolIso. Courtesy of C. B. Huebschle & P. Luger [J. Appl. Cryst. (2006), 39, 901904]. 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 211217 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806052058 ] The revenge of the Patterson methods. II. Substructure applicationsM. C. Burla, R. Caliandro, B. Carrozzini, G. L. Cascarano, L. De Caro, C. Giacovazzo, G. Polidori and D. SiliqiSynopsis: The efficiencies of Patterson and directmethods techniques for substructure applications are compared. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 218231 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806053295 ] Smallangle energydispersive Xray scattering using a laboratorybased diffractometer with a conventional sourceG. Portale, A. Longo, L. D'Ilario, A. Martinelli, R. Caminiti and V. Rossi AlbertiniSynopsis: Energydispersive smallangle Xray scattering experiments on protein solutions, micelles, semicrystalline polymers and metal oxides are discussed to illustrate the limits and the potentialities of this technique. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 232240 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806054094 ] Accurate determination and correction of the lattice parameter of LaB_{6} (standard reference material 660) relative to that of Si (640b)C. T. Chantler, N. A. Rae and C. Q. TranSynopsis: Xray powder diffraction and synchrotron radiation have been used to determine the lattice parameter of the NIST standard reference material (SRM 660) LaB_{6} as 4.156468 Å with an accuracy of 12 parts per million (p.p.m.), calibrated relative to the lattice parameter of the Si powder standard [a_{0} = 5.430940 (11) Å, Si 640b]. A discrepancy of 0.00048 (5) Å, or nine standard deviations from the NIST reference, is observed between the currently accepted lattice spacing of LaB_{6} and the measured value. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 241249 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055877 ] Enantiomorph identification of crystals belonging to the point groups 321 and 312 by convergentbeam electron diffractionH. Inui, A. Fujii, H. Sakamoto, S. Fujio and K. TanakaSynopsis: Asymmetry in the intensity of the reflections of Bijvoet pairs in a symmetrical zone axis is compared with that of a computersimulated CBED pattern. The method has been successfully applied to crystals belonging to the point groups 321 and 312. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 250259 [ doi:10.1107/S002188980605638X ] Smallangle neutron scattering resolution with refractive opticsB. Hammouda and D. F. R. MildnerSynopsis: The resolution of smallangle neutron scattering instruments is investigated for the case where refractive optics (lenses or prisms) are used. The appropriate equations are derived to describe the position and the spatial variance of the neutron beam at the detector in the horizontal and vertical directions, and the minimum value of the scattering vector. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 260276 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807000295 ] Microstructural evolution of mullites produced from singlephase gelsM. A. Kojdecki, E. Ruiz de Sola, F. J. Serrano, E. DelgadoPinar, M. M. Reventós, V. J. Esteve, J. M. Amigó and J. AlarcónSynopsis: The crystalline microstructure of mullites, produced by heating monophasic gels, prepared from mixtures of aluminium nitrate and tetraethylorthosilicate, at different final treatment temperatures, is characterized by prevalent crystallite shape, volumeweighted crystallite size distribution and secondorder crystalline lattice strain distribution determined from Xray diffraction patterns. These characteristics, being dependent on process temperature and initial gel chemical composition, are in good agreement with images obtained from field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 277281 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005122 ] Twin structure in the crystallite aggregation patternS. Zhao, Q. Wang, R. Liu, L. Lu and J. WangSynopsis: The anisotropy of the NH_{4}Cl crystallite zigzag aggregation pattern is a twin structure of 6mm symmetry, related to the crystal point group m3m. The twin axis is [110], the twin plane is {211} and the contact interface is {411}. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 282289 [ doi:10.1107/S002188980700564X ] Smallangle scattering from threephase samples: application to coal undergoing an extraction processS. Ciccariello and P. RielloSynopsis: After deriving the linear relations among the scattering intensities of samples related by slight modifications, we characterize the fluid extraction process of coal. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 290301 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806053131 ] Phasing of resonant anomalous Xray reflectivity spectra and direct Fourier synthesis of elementspecific partial structures at buried interfacesC. Park and P. A. FenterSynopsis: A modelindependent formalism to obtain elementspecific partial structures at buried interfaces using resonant anomalous Xray scattering is described. The amplitude and phase of an elementspecific partial structure factor, obtained with resonant anomalous Xray reflectivity spectra, allow unknown elementspecific partial density distributions at an interface having an arbitrary shape to be reconstructed by discrete Fourier synthesis. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 302304 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806053854 ] Smallangle scattering analysis of the spherical halfshellW. GilleSynopsis: The smallangle scattering structure functions of the single spherical halfshell (SHS) are discussed based on the chord length distribution of the socalled cap chords of a solid hemisphere. Using simple analytic expressions, it is possible to describe the scattering of polydisperse arrangements of noninteracting SHSs. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 305312 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807000817 ] Nondestructive quantitative synchrotron grazing incidence Xray scattering analysis of cylindrical nanostructures in supported thin filmsJ. Yoon, S. Y. Yang, B. Lee, W. Joo, K. Heo, J. K. Kim and M. ReeSynopsis: This paper demonstrates a quantitative, nondestructive analysis of nanostructured thin films supported on substrates and their templated nanopores with grazing incidence Xray scattering. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 313321 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001288 ] A stochastic algorithm for reconstruction of grain maps of moderately deformed specimens based on Xray diffractionL. Rodek, H. F. Poulsen, E. Knudsen and G. T. HermanSynopsis: A stochastic algorithm is presented for the reconstruction of twodimensional grain maps of embedded layers in moderately deformed polycrystalline specimens based on Xray diffraction. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 322331 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003160 ] Diffraction profiles of elastically bent single crystals with constant strain gradientsH. Yan, Ö. Kalenci and I. C. NoyanSynopsis: Exact and approximate equations are derived which can be used to simulate dynamical scattering artifacts (mirage peaks) that are observed in diffraction from strained single crystals. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 332337 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003433 ] Hightemperature (1500 K) reciprocal space mapping on a laboratory Xray diffractometerR. Guinebretière, A. Boulle, R. Bachelet, O. Masson and P. ThomasSynopsis: A laboratory Xray diffractometer devoted to the in situ characterization of the microstructure of epitaxic thin films at temperatures up to 1500 K has been built. A specific stage for the in situ correction of the sample holder dilation allows accurate sample positioning over the whole temperature range explored. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 338343 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003603 ] Determination by highresolution Xray diffraction of shape, size and lateral separation of buried empty channels in silicononnothing architecturesM. ServidoriSynopsis: By analysis of transverse and longitudinal scans in the reciprocal space, both crossing a selected reciprocal lattice point, the shape, size and lateral gap of empty channels, distributed as a onedimensional periodic array below the surface of silicononnothing architectures, were determined thanks to the highresolution optics adopted for the measurements. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 344348 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807006358 ] Direct methods and the solution of organic structures from powder dataA. Altomare, M. Camalli, C. Cuocci, C. Giacovazzo, A. G. G. Moliterni and R. RizziSynopsis: A procedure is described aiming at recovering a complete crystal structure from a uninterpretable electron density map produced by application of direct methods to powder data. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 349353 [ doi:10.1107/S002188980700430X ] The healing process for fractured tibia bones of sheep studied by neutron diffractionG. E. Bacon and A. E. GoodshipSynopsis: The orientation of the mineral crystals of a fractured tibia bone of a sheep is not restored after almost two years of recovery. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 354361 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005882 ] Structure and microstructure evolution during martensitic transformation in wrought Fe26Mn0.14C austenitic steel: an effect of cooling rateP. Sahu, A. S. Hamada, S. Ghosh Chowdhury and L. P. KarjalainenSynopsis: Rietveld analysis of the Xray diffraction pattern and electron backscattered diffraction studies are presented for the structure and microstructure evolution during _{fcc} _{hcp} martensitic transformation due to various cooling conditions of wrought austenitic steel. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 362370 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005547 ] Anisotropic microstrain broadening due to fieldtensor distributionsA. LeineweberSynopsis: The anisotropic microstrain distribution resulting from an isotropic distribution of a field tensor (rank 0 or 2), the latter being connected with strain by an anisotropic property tensor (rank 2 or 4), is analyzed. The treatment simplifies the search for a possible physical origin of experimentally observed anisotropic microstrain broadening. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 371375 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055476 ] On the entropy to texture index relationship in quantitative texture analysisR. Hielscher, H. Schaeben and D. ChateignerSynopsis: A sharp inequality is proved between the norm and the entropy of probability density functions; this inequality is applied to texture analysis by characterizing the relationship between the entropy and the texture index of an orientation density function. The relationship is empirically verified with simulated and experimental data. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 376378 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055683 ] Xray brightfield imaging analyzes crystalline quality and defects of SiC wafersJ. M. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. Zhong, J. H. Je, Y. Hwu and G. MargaritondoSynopsis: An extension of the recently developed Xray brightfield imaging technique is presented that allows the quantitative analysis of crystalline quality parameters such as the lattice plane curvature and the mosaic distribution in SiC wafers. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 379381 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807007832 ] A new method for the reproducible generation of polymorphs: two forms of sulindac with very different solubilitiesA. Llinàs, K. J. Box, J. C. Burley, R. C. Glen and J. M. GoodmanSynopsis: A new method for the reproducible generation of polymorphs, `potentiometric cycling for polymorph creation (PC)^{2}', is described. This new method has been applied to sulindac, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, which also shows promise in anticancer treatment, producing two polymorphs of this API, including a new more stable one. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 382385 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003986 ] From CIF to virtual morphology using the WinXMorph programW. KaminskySynopsis: Crystal morphologies are predicted from data stored in files in CIF format on the basis of the BravaisFriedel, DonnayHarker model. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 386 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055762 ] The Fortran90 source of the program PSILAME. RossmanithSynopsis: The Fortran90 source code of the program PSILAM has been deposited with the IUCr. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 387390 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003998 ] A parallel program using SHELXD for quick heavyatom partial structural solution on highperformance computersZ.Q. Fu, J. Chrzas, G. M. Sheldrick, J. Rose and B.C. WangSynopsis: Based on a parallel algorithm designed for SHELXD to solve the heavyatom partial structures of protein crystals quickly, a program has been developed to run on highperformance multipleCPU Linux PCs, workstations or clusters. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 391 [ doi:10.1107/S002188980605343X ] Crystallization shelfB. Cabric and A. JanicijevicSynopsis: A model of an air cooler in a laboratory furnace, for simultaneous regulation of different crystallization fronts and rates in crucible columns, with the purpose of obtaining crystals, is presented. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 392393 [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001136 ] Likelihood of crystallization: experimental and computational approachesO. Carugo, K. Djinovic Carugo, A. E. Gorbalenya and P. TuckerSynopsis: A report on the VIZIER Workshop on the `Definition of protein domains and their likelihood of crystallization', Vienna, Austria, 2830 June 2006. Online 12 March 2007 
J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, 394397 forthcoming meetings and short courses 
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