Journal of Applied Crystallography

Volume 40, Part s1 (April 2007)


Proceedings of the XIIIth International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering (Online Supplement)

Kyoto, Japan, 9-13 July 2006

[Preface]
[Issue Author Index][Volume Author Index]
[Cover illustration]

Special sessions

Parallel sessions


Plenary papers


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s1-s9  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055579 ]

Contribution of synchrotron radiation to small-angle X-ray scattering studies in hard condensed matter

J.-P. Simon

Synopsis: Synchrotron radiation, by virtue of its special beam characteristics, has revived interest in small-angle X-ray scattering for hard condensed matter and materials science. New techniques have been developed and new scientific themes tackled, ranging from metallurgy to nanotechnology.

Online 20 January 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s10-s17  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001409 ]

Small-angle scattering studies of macromolecular solutions

D. I. Svergun

Synopsis: Advanced methods for the analysis of small-angle scattering data from solutions of biological macromolecules are reviewed.

Online 7 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s18-s22  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807007996 ]

Structure and dynamics of thin polymer films using synchrotron X-ray scattering

Z. Jiang, H. Kim, H. Lee, Y. J. Lee, X. Jiao, C. Li, L. B. Lurio, X. Hu, J. Lal, S. Narayanan, A. Sandy, M. Rafailovich and S. K. Sinha

Synopsis: Synchrotron X-ray diffuse scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy in reflection geometry were used to measure the structure and dynamic properties at the surface, interface and in the interior of supported polymer films.

Online 20 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s23-s27  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003718 ]

Contrast variation in X-ray and neutron scattering

H. B. Stuhrmann

Synopsis: Methods of contrast variation in X-ray and neutron scattering are reviewed.

Online 7 February 2007


Special sessions


Dynamics


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s28-s33  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806056093 ]

Polymer dynamics: from synthetic polymers to proteins

D. Richter

Synopsis: Neutron spin echo spectroscopy reveals the two main reptation limiting processes: constraint release and contour length fluctuation on a molecular scale. The first direct observations of domain dynamics in biopolymers are presented.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version][Video data file]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s34-s37  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009168 ]

Measurement of self-diffusion constant with two-dimensional X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy

A. Robert

Synopsis: Two-dimensional XPCS allows the dynamics of large wavectors in materials opaque to visible light to be probed. The self-diffusion constant of a colloidal dispersion is probed and compared with available models.

Online 20 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s38-s42  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003561 ]

Homodyne and heterodyne X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy: latex particles and elastomers

F. Livet, F. Bley, F. Ehrburger-Dolle, I. Morfin, E. Geissler and M. Sutton

Synopsis: Interferences are observed in coherent X-ray small-angle scattering between a static reference and a fluctuating sample. Heterodyning makes possible the observation of Doppler shifts with sample drift velocities in the nanometres per second range.

Online 24 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s43-s47  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806054707 ]

Complementary use of small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering studies for structure analysis and dynamics of polymer gels

M. Shibayama, T. Karino, Y. Domon and K. Ito

Synopsis: Small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering have been complementarily employed in order to investigate the structure and dynamics of polymer gels. It is demonstrated that complementary use is necessary to explore the dynamics of polymer gels, particularly that of slide-ring gels in which cross-links can slide along the backbone polymer chain.

Online 20 January 2007


External fields


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s48-s51  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806048874 ]

Probing the flow-induced shish-kebab structure in entangled polyethylene melts by synchrotron X-ray scattering

J. K. Keum, F. Zuo and B. S. Hsiao

Synopsis: Flow-induced shish-kebab structure formation in ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/low-molecular-weight polyethylene blend melts was investigated by using synchrotron X-rays. The results confirmed that the formation of shish is due to the topological deformation of the UHMWPE entanglement network and the formation of shish can accelerate the kebab nucleation.

Online 2 December 2006


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s52-s56  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806054823 ]

Behaviour of materials in magnetic fields studied by small-angle X-ray scattering

W. Bras

Synopsis: A short oversight of experiments where small-angle X-ray scattering was performed on samples which were kept in high magnetic fields is given. The samples are biological macromolecules, liquid crystals and crystalline materials.

Online 26 January 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s57-s61  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001410 ]

Reordering of magnetic colloid structures in external magnetic fields

A. Heinemann, A. Wiedenmann and M. Kammel

Synopsis: A polarized small-angle scattering experiment with a concentrated magnetic fluid is described confirming dipolar chains and domains of hexagonal arrangements.

Online 27 January 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s62-s67  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806047650 ]

Field-dependent relaxation behavior of Co-ferrofluid investigated with stroboscopic time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering

U. Keiderling and A. Wiedenmann

Synopsis: The decay of inter-particle order in Co-ferrofluid has been investigated for different inducing magnetic fields. Time constants have been calculated for the relaxation.

Online 19 December 2006


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s68-s72  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807000441 ]

Effects of side-chain length on the magnetic response of discotic metallomesogens

J.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, B. D. Pate and S.-M. Choi

Synopsis: The magnetic responses of columnar discotic metallomesogens, cobalt octa(n-alkylthio)porphyrazine with different side-chain lengths (CoSx, where x is the peripheral n-alkyl chain length, x = 10, 12, 14), have been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. The magnetic field strength required for the alignment of the columnar phase increased with the side-chain length x.

Online 9 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s73-s77  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003445 ]

A combined small-angle scattering study of a chemical reaction at specific sites and reaction-induced self-assembly as a problem in open non-equilibrium phenomena

T. Hashimoto, H. Tanaka, S. Koizumi, K. Naka and Y. Chujo

Synopsis: As a problem in open non-equilibrium phenomena, small-angle scattering studies of a chemical reaction at specific sites and reaction-induced self-assembly of the system which is induced by mixing two stable solutions of palladium(II) acetate [Pd(OAc)2] in N,N-dimethylformamide and the second-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer in methanol are presented.

Online 23 February 2007


Hierarchy/wide-Q range


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s78-s82  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807006693 ]

Scanning X-ray imaging with small-angle scattering contrast

A. Gourrier, W. Wagermaier, M. Burghammer, D. Lammie, H. S. Gupta, P. Fratzl, C. Riekel, T. J. Wess and O. Paris

Synopsis: A scanning X-ray imaging technique using the integrated small-angle scattering (SAXS) intensity is presented. The origin of the SAXS contrast is discussed for three biological materials: bone, eggshell and hair.

Online 6 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s83-s87  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806051995 ]

Hierarchical bionanotubes formed by the self assembly of microtubules with cationic membranes or polypeptides

U. Raviv, D. J. Needleman, K. K. Ewert and C. R. Safinya

Synopsis: Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy data are presented for reconstituted protein systems from the bovine central nervous system, which reveal unexpected structures of hierarchical bionanotubes, not predicted by current electrostatic theories.

Online 10 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s88-s92  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807004153 ]

Simplified tube form factor for analysis of small-angle scattering data from carbon nanotube filled systems

R. S. Justice, D. H. Wang, L.-S. Tan and D. W. Schaefer

Synopsis: A simplified tube (hollow cylinder) form factor is developed and utilized to analyze ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering data obtained from multi-walled carbon nanotube/bismaleimide composite samples. The form factor is useful for distinguishing between hollow and solid cylinders as well for detecting the presence of aggregation of one-dimensional colloidal fillers in polymers.

Online 17 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s93-s96  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001549 ]

A visualized analysis of small-angle neutron scattering intensity: concentration fluctuation in alcohol-water mixtures

M. Misawa, T. Sato, A. Onozuka, K. Maruyama, K. Mori, S. Suzuki and T. Otomo

Synopsis: Visualized analysis of SANS from a tert-butyl alcohol-water mixture has revealed that the concentration fluctuation is characterized by polydisperse mass fractals.

Online 9 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s97-s100  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806053507 ]

Hierarchical structures formed by partially crystalline polymers in solution: from fundamentals to applications - a combined conventional, focusing and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering study

A. Radulescu, D. Schwahn, J. Stellbrink, E. Kentzinger, L. J. Fetters and D. Richter

Synopsis: Multilevel aggregates with characteristic sizes covering four orders of magnitude, from 1 nm to 10 µm, formed upon cooling decane solutions of poly(ethylene-butene) random copolymers and wax-containing mixed solutions are investigated by combining three small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques (conventional SANS, focusing SANS and ultra-SANS) with microscopy.

Online 2 December 2006


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s101-s105  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807011727 ]

Hierarchical structure of niobate nanosheets in aqueous solution

D. Yamaguchi, N. Miyamoto, S. Koizumi, T. Nakato and T. Hashimoto

Synopsis: The hierarchical structure of an aqueous dispersion of niobate nanosheets was investigated by (ultra-)small-angle scattering methods.

Online 21 April 2007


New methods and devices


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s106-s110  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806052149 ]

Creating local contrast in small-angle neutron scattering by dynamic nuclear polarization

B. van den Brandt, H. Glättli, P. Hautle, J. Kohlbrecher, J. A. Konter, A. Michels, H. B. Stuhrmann and O. Zimmer

Synopsis: Dynamic nuclear polarization and its application to small-angle neutron scattering are discussed.

Online 3 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s111-s115  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005249 ]

Spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering study of the domain structure of an Ni layer on a Cu substrate

S. V. Grigoriev, Y. O. Chetverikov, V. N. Zabenkin, W. H. Kraan, M. T. Rekveldt and N. van Dijk

Synopsis: Spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering is used to study the magnetic domain structure of an Ni layer on a Cu substrate. The experiments demonstrate the possibilities of this novel technique.

Online 21 April 2007


Parallel sessions


Alloys and ceramics


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s116-s120  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001859 ]

Small-angle neutron scattering from extended defects in diamonds

A. A. Shiryaev

Synopsis: It is shown that natural and synthetic diamonds contain planar and three-dimensional defects, observable by small-angle neutron scattering. These defects appear after annealing and/or deformation of the diamonds.

Online 27 January 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s121-s125  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807000064 ]

Core structure of latent heavy-ion tracks in {100} LiF derived by small-angle X-ray scattering

S. Abu Saleh and Y. Eyal

Synopsis: Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses on {100} LiF platelets following irradiation with swift Pb and U ions have revealed continuous highly depleted electron densities close to the ion trajectories, suggesting local ion-induced decomposition of the crystal followed by release of mobile alteration products.

Online 27 January 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s126-s131  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005493 ]

Contribution of small-angle X-ray scattering to microstructural investigation of newly developed Mg-rare earth alloys for structural applications

C. Antion, F. Bley, P. Donnadieu, A. Deschamps, A. Pisch, J.-J. Blandin and C. Tassin-Arques

Synopsis: New magnesium-rare earth alloys, strengthened by a dense fine scale precipitation, have been designed for structural applications up to 523 K. A complementary study using small-angle X-ray scattering is presented here.

Online 2 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s132-s137  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807002609 ]

Two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering from as-grown and heat-treated synthetic quartz

P. L. Guzzo, A. H. Shinohara, A. E. F. Santos, S. S. Funari and S. Daito

Synopsis: The contribution of molecular water aggregates in the small-angle X-ray scattering of quartz crystals was investigated as a function of the azimuth angle around the primary beam. The presence of Kossel lines randomly decorating the anisotropic two-dimensional pattern and the lack of a clear relationship between Porod invariant and OH content revealed that diffuse scattering plays an important role in the scattering of quartz crystal.

Online 3 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s138-s141  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003524 ]

Precursory microstructures in Zr-Cu-Al-Ni bulk metallic glasses examined by anomalous small-angle scattering at the Zr K edge

H. Okuda, I. Murase, S. Ochiai, J. Saida, Y. Yokoyama and K. Inoue

Synopsis: Microstructures in Zr-Cu-Al-Ni bulk metallic glasses consisting only of metallic elements have been examined by anomalous small-angle scattering at the Zr K edge. The cluster-like scattering was analysed in terms of composition fluctuation.

Online 17 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s142-s146  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005110 ]

Microstructural investigation of low-dose neutron irradiation effects in martensitic steels for nuclear application by means of small-angle neutron scattering

R. Coppola, R. Lindau, R. P. May, A. Möslang and M. Valli

Synopsis: The microstructural effect of low-dose neutron irradiation in ferritic/martensitic steels has been investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering: depending on the initial steel composition different microstructural evolutions are observed during post-irradiation tempering.

Online 20 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s147-s152  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806048382 ]

Structure of nanoporous zirconia-based powders synthesized by different gel-combustion routes

J. R. Casanova, I. O. Fábregas, D. G. Lamas, N. E. Walsöe de Reca, G. E. Lascalea, R. Kempf, A. F. Craievich and C. V. Santilli

Synopsis: ZrO2-2.8 mol% Y2O3 powders synthesized by the gel-combustion route were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering and other techniques. The nanoporous structures of these materials were characterized as functions of the nature of the organic fuel and of the calcination temperature.

Online 12 December 2006


Biological solution scattering


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s153-s158  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005936 ]

Modelling of bacteriophage capsids and free nucleic acids

P. Zipper and H. Durchschlag

Synopsis: SAXS-based ab initio modelling of the capsids of isometric bacteriophages allows the solution structure of the constituent hollow spheres to be reconstructed reliably. For the shape of their free nucleic acid, however, other advanced modelling approaches are to be preferred.

Online 20 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s159-s164  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806045729 ]

Permeability of water through a raft model membrane clarified by time-resolved SANS and SAXS

M. Hirai, T. Onai, M. Koizumi, H. Hirai, K. Kasahara, N. Suzuki, K. Yuyama and K. Inoue

Synopsis: By the complimentary use of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques, the permeability of water across a raft model membrane containing ganglioside (GD3) and the effect of monovalent cations (Na+ and K+) on the permeability have been investigated. The structures of GD3 micelle and GD3/cholesterol mixtures are also discussed.

Online 2 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s165-s169  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001835 ]

Charge interaction and temperature effects on the solution structure of lysozyme as revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering

Y.-S. Huang, U.-S. Jeng, Y.-J. Shiu, Y.-H. Lai and Y.-S. Sun

Synopsis: Charge interaction and temperature effects on the solution structure of lysozyme are studied by small-angle X-ray scattering.

Online 10 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s170-s174  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807010229 ]

Solution structure of Ca2+/calmodulin complexed with a lentivirus lytic peptide 1 reveals a novel mode of molecular recognition

Y. Izumi, A. Amano, T. Saito and Y. Jinbo

Synopsis: The solution structure of Ca2+/calmodulin complexed with a lentivirus lytic peptide 1 reveals a novel mode of molecular recognition. The result suggests that this region of the transmembrane glycoprotein is important to viral replication.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s175-s178  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003354 ]

Collapse of the hydration shell of a protein prior to thermal unfolding

M. Koizumi, H. Hirai, T. Onai, K. Inoue and M. Hirai

Synopsis: The change of the hydration shell of hen egg-white lysozyme during the unfolding-refolding process as a function temperature has been analysed. The decrease of the hydration-shell density starts from a lower temperature than the transition temperature of the collapse of the tertiary structure.

Online 21 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s179-s183  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807002117 ]

Binding of trifluoperazine to apocalmodulin revealed by a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance

N. Matsushima, N. Hayashi, N. Watanabe, Y. Jinbo and Y. Izumi

Synopsis: Small-angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance studies were performed to investigate the binding of trifluoperazine to Ca2+-free calmodulin with N- and C-terminal globular domains connected by a linker.

Online 17 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s184-s189  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009211 ]

Initial process of amyloid formation of apomyoglobin and effect of glycosphingolipid GM1

T. Onai, M. Koizumi, H. Lu, K. Inoue and M. Hirai

Synopsis: Using small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques it has been possible to clarify the helix-to-sheet (cross-[beta]) transition and the stacking process of the cross-[beta] sheet of apomyoglobin as a model for amyloid.

Online 1 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s190-s194  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055506 ]

Upgrade of the small-angle X-ray scattering beamline X33 at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg

M. W. Roessle, R. Klaering, U. Ristau, B. Robrahn, D. Jahn, T. Gehrmann, P. Konarev, A. Round, S. Fiedler, C. Hermes and D. Svergun

Synopsis: A major upgrade of the X33 beamline at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory which has improved the beamline stability and data quality, shortened the measurement time and ensured user-friendly operation is reported.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s195-s199  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003597 ]

A modified Ising model for the thermodynamic properties of local and global protein folding-unfolding observed by circular dichroism and small-angle X-ray scattering

Y.-J. Shiu, U.-S. Jeng, C. Su, Y.-S. Huang, M. Hayashi, K.-K. Liang, Y.-L. Yeh and S.-H. Lin

Synopsis: The application of a modified Ising model for the thermodynamic properties of local and global protein folding-unfolding is described.

Online 17 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s200-s204  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807006838 ]

Shape of [alpha]-crystallin analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering

M. Sugiyama, N. Fujii, Y. Morimoto, T. Otomo, S. Takata, M. Misawa, M. Annaka, K. Itoh, K. Mori, T. Sato, S. Kurabayashi and T. Fukunaga

Synopsis: The size and shape of aggregates of human recombinant> [alpha]A- and [alpha]B-crystallins are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering at 310 K and 288 K. The aggregates of [alpha]B-crystallin are stable at both temperatures but those of [alpha]A-crystallin are deformed at the lower temperature (288 K).

Online 6 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s205-s208  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001987 ]

Localization of dihalogenated phenols in vesicle systems determined by contrast variation X-ray scattering

Z. Varga, A. Bóta and G. Goerigk

Synopsis: Using contrast variation by means of isomorphous replacement, the localization of dihalogenated phenols in multilamellar vesicles was determined, and was compared with the results of anomalous small-angle scattering.

Online 7 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s209-s212  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009247 ]

Small-angle light and X-ray scattering measurements of a protein-oligosaccharide complex mucin in solution

Y. Watanabe and Y. Inoko

Synopsis: The molecular assembly and chain conformation of a glycoprotein mucin are characterized by using small-angle scattering methods.

Online 6 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s213-s216  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807008278 ]

Chloride-ion concentration dependence of molecular dimension in the acid-denatured state of equine [beta]-lactoglobulin

Y. Yamada, T. Yajima, S. Tsukamoto, K. Nakagawa, K. Fujiwara, H. Kihara and M. Ikeguchi

Synopsis: The chloride-ion concentration dependence of the molecular shape in the acid-denatured state of equine [beta]-lactoglobulin was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering. The results indicated that the compact molten globule is transformed to an expanded conformation with decreasing chloride-ion concentration. Interestingly, this change accompanied the increase in the helix content as measured by circular dichroic spectra.

Online 1 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s217-s222  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005821 ]

Biological solution scattering: recent achievements and future challenges

J. G. Grossmann

Synopsis: Solution X-ray and neutron scattering methods are briefly reviewed in view of their appeal and recent progress in data-analysis procedures. Specific examples are discussed highlighting the potential of the techniques and their future developments and applications to structural investigations in the post-genomics era.

Online 3 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s223-s228  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807002853 ]

ATSAS 2.1 - towards automated and web-supported small-angle scattering data analysis

M. V. Petoukhov, P. V. Konarev, A. G. Kikhney and D. I. Svergun

Synopsis: New features of the small-angle scattering data analysis package ATSAS 2.1 that allow automated data processing and web-based access are described.

Online 1 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s229-s234  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001707 ]

Low-resolution models for nucleic acids from small-angle X-ray scattering with applications to electrostatic modeling

J. Lipfert, V. B. Chu, Y. Bai, D. Herschlag and S. Doniach

Synopsis: It is shown that bead reconstruction algorithms can be used to obtain low-resolution three-dimensional density maps for nucleic acids from SAXS data. In addition, it is shown that the reconstructed bead models can be used to define the molecular geometry in Poisson-Boltzmann calculations to accurately determine the excess number of ions bound under different solution conditions.

Online 9 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s235-s239  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005791 ]

Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data of protein-detergent complexes by singular value decomposition

J. Lipfert, L. Columbus, V. B. Chu and S. Doniach

Synopsis: We present a method to separate the protein-detergent complex scattering signal from that of `empty' detergent micelles in small-angle X-ray scattering data of protein-detergent mixtures. The approach relies on singular value decomposition and fitting to data collected at different protein-detergent stoichiometries.

Online 3 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s240-s244  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807006218 ]

Microstructure of ternary system di-lauroyl-phosphatidyl-adenosine/water/cyclohexane

F. Betti, F. Baldelli Bombelli, D. Berti, M. Bonini, A. Brandt and P. Baglioni

Synopsis: Microstructural characterization of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-adenosine micellar solutions upon cyclohexane addition by SANS experiments with internal contrast variation.

Online 20 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s245-s249  [ doi:10.1107/S002188980700252X ]

Accuracy of molecular mass determination of proteins in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering

E. Mylonas and D. I. Svergun

Synopsis: A systematic evaluation of the accuracy of molecular mass determination of proteins using small-angle X-ray scattering.

Online 17 February 2007


Colloids, surfactants and liquids


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s250-s253  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009016 ]

The dynamic behavior of magnetic colloids in suspension

T. Autenrieth, A. Robert, J. Wagner and G. Grübel

Synopsis: The short-time diffusion of a magnetic charge-stabilized colloidal suspension in the absence of an external applied magnetic field has been investigated by means of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

Online 6 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s254-s258  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009600 ]

Study of ferrite ferrofluids by small-angle scattering of polarized neutrons

M. Bonini, A. Wiedenmann and P. Baglioni

Synopsis: This work reports the synthesis and the characterization by small-angle scattering of polarized neutrons of ferrofluids consisting of ferrite nanoparticles coated by dodecanoic acid and dispersed in cyclohexane.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s259-s263  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807018882 ]

Vesicles as reactors of nanoparticles: an anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering study of the domains rich in copper ions

A. Bóta, Z. Varga and G. Goerigk

Synopsis: The gaps among the stacks of multilamellar vesicles used for the synthesis of nanoparticles are shown and characterized by ASAXS and freeze-fracture methods.

Online 21 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s264-s268  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807017888 ]

Salt-concentration dependence of the structure and form factors for the wormlike micelle made from a dual surfactant in aqueous solutions

K. Eguchi, I. Kaneda, Y. Hiwatari, H. Masunaga and K. Sakurai

Synopsis: The small-angle X-ray scattering from dual-surfactant aqueous solutions made from sodium lauryl ether sulfate and coconut fatty acid amido propyl betaine was systematically measured as a function of the net sodium cation concentration and the surfactant concentration. The low-q behaviour of the form factor was consistent with long rigid cylinders while the middle- and high-q profiles fitted well with a core-shell cylinder model.

Online 21 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s269-s273  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009181 ]

Small-angle X-ray and small-angle neutron scattering investigations of colloidal dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles and clay nanoplatelets

F. L. O. Paula, R. Aquino, G. J. da Silva, J. Depeyrot, F. A. Tourinho, J. O. Fossum and K. D. Knudsen

Synopsis: Mixed colloidal dispersions of clay platelets and magnetic nanoparticles were investigated using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering. The main contribution to the scattering is due to the magnetic nanoparticles. The scattering intensities are proportional to the concentration of magnetic particles, thus from the scattering point of view the sample is a colloidal dispersion of non-interacting magnetic objects, although the laponite and magnetic particles clearly interact when the sample textures are observed in an optical microscope. The phase separation may be characterized as a liquid-gas transition.

Online 6 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s274-s278  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807008151 ]

Effect of cations on the structure of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate water-in-oil microemulsion

R. Kawai-Hirai and M. Hirai

Synopsis: The structure and oligomerization of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate water-in-oil microemulsion under the presence of monovalent and divalent salts in the water pool are dominated not only by the electrostatic effect between polar headgroups but also by the hydration effect by salts.

Online 20 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s279-s282  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807011958 ]

X-ray studies of the self-organized structure formed by 1,2-bis(4'-n-alkoxybenzoyl)hydrazine (BABH-n) homologues. 1. Ia3d-gyroid structure

S. Kutsumizu, H. Mori, M. Fukatami and K. Saito

Synopsis: Examination of the relative intensity of the X-ray 220 reflection with respect to the 211 reference peak as a function of the alkoxy chain length of the title compounds enables the internal structure of the thermotropic Ia3d cubic phase to be clarified.

Online 14 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s283-s285  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807017852 ]

X-ray fluorescence correlation spectroscopy - a tool to study element-specific dynamics

O. Leupold, G. Grübel, S. V. Roth, C. Schroer, W. Roseker, M. Sikorski and A. Robert

Synopsis: The dynamics of Au nanoparticles suspended in mixtures of water and glycerol are investigated by X-ray fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The contrast of the measured time-correlation functions scales as expected with the Au particle concentration. The time constants for translational diffusion and sedimentation in water/glycerol show only qualitative agreement with the expected values.

Online 21 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s286-s291  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807008552 ]

Mesoscopic structure of dry-pressed clay samples from small-angle X-ray scattering measurements

Y. Méheust, S. Dagois-Bohy, K. D. Knudsen and J. O. Fossum

Synopsis: Small-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the meso-structure of dry-pressed samples of nano-layered platelet-shaped clay particles, as water is absorbed into individual particles. The orientational order of the assembly is nematic. Orientation distributions are monitored and show a moderate decrease of this order with water uptake.

Online 20 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s292-s296  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807010825 ]

Phase behavior of platelet-shaped nanosilicate colloids in saline solutions - a small-angle X-ray scattering study

D. M. Fonseca, Y. Méheust, J. O. Fossum, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy and K. P. S. Parmar

Synopsis: Precise characterization of the phase diagram for suspensions of sodium fluorohectorite colloids in saline solutions is achieved from small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Radial intensity profiles are also addressed.

Online 14 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s297-s302  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055191 ]

Structural models of metastable phases occurring during the crystallization process of saturated/unsaturated triacylglycerols

O. O. Mykhaylyk, K. W. Smith, C. M. Martin and A. J. Ryan

Synopsis: Structural models are developed for the metastable phases of saturated/unsaturated triacylglycerols appearing at the very beginning of crystallization from the melt based on experimental time-resolved SAXS/WAXS studies of isothermal crystallization in various fats.

Online 20 January 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s303-s306  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807010345 ]

Repulsive interlamellar interaction induced by addition of colloidal particles

Y. Suganuma, M. Imai and K. Nakaya

Synopsis: The addition of colloidal particles between lamellar membrane slits induced a repulsive interlamellar interaction which showed a unique interlamellar distance dependence.

Online 14 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s307-s311  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001483 ]

Small-angle neutron scattering study of aqueous solutions of pentanediol and hexanediol

N. K. Székely, L. Almásy, A. Radulescu and L. Rosta

Synopsis: Aqueous solutions of 1,2-pentanediol, 1,5-pentanediol, 1,2-hexanediol and 1,6-hexanediol have been studied by small-angle neutron scattering, and the results analysed with the help of the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. The 1,2-hexanediol solutions exhibit the strongest attractive diol-diol interaction and the excess coordination numbers are in agreement with the possibility of forming micelles.

Online 3 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s312-s317  [ doi:10.1107/S002188980700859X ]

Structural characterization of N-lignoceroyl (C24:0) sphingomyelin bilayer membranes: a re-evaluation

H. Takahashi, T. Hayakawa, Y. Kawasaki, K. Ito, T. Fujisawa, M. Kodama and T. Kobayashi

Synopsis: Sphingomyelin is one of the major sphingolipid components of many animal plasma membranes. SAXS and XRD studies revealed that N-lignocerol (C24:0) sphingomyelin bilayers have a ripple phase and an additional low-temperature stable phase.

Online 1 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s318-s320  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807008138 ]

Small-angle X-ray scattering investigation of water droplets in mist

Y. F. Yano, K. Matsuura, T. Fukazu, F. Abe, A. Wakisaka, H. Kobara, K. Kaneko, A. Kumagai, Y. Katsuya, M. Okui and M. Tanaka

Synopsis: Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of water droplets in a mist were carried out using the BL15XU beamline at SPring-8.

Online 6 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s321-s326  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807006723 ]

The two-Yukawa model and its applications: the cases of charged proteins and copolymer micellar solutions

S.-H. Chen, M. Broccio, Y. Liu, E. Fratini and P. Baglioni

Synopsis: An analytical model for the structure factor, based on an effective interaction potential made of an attractive Yukawa term plus a repulsive Yukawa term, has been applied to charged proteins and copolymer micellar solutions.

Online 6 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s327-s331  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005201 ]

Unraveling the equilibrium chain exchange kinetics of polymeric micelles using small-angle neutron scattering - architectural and topological effects

R. Lund, L. Willner, D. Richter, H. Iatrou, N. Hadjichristidis and P. Lindner

Synopsis: Using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering it is possible to extract the equilibrium exchange kinetics of polymeric micelles. This paper provides insight into the effect of topological constraints on the expulsion time by comparing results from A-B diblock and A-B-A triblock copolymer micelles.

Online 3 March 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s332-s334  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807013568 ]

Shear-induced structural transition in the lamellar phase of the C16E7/D2O system. Time evolution of small-angle neutron scattering at a constant shear rate

K. Miyazaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Kawabata, S. Komura and T. Kato

Synopsis: The time evolution of the small-angle scattering of the lamellar phase of a nonionic surfactant C16H33(OC2H4)7OH (C16E7) in D2O at a constant shear rate (0.3-30 s-1) is measured. The results indicate a discontinuous decrease in the repeat distance and so suggest some sort of transition.

Online 14 April 2007


Fibre diffraction


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s335-s340  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005523 ]

Small-angle fibre diffraction studies of corneal matrix structure: a depth-profiled investigation of the human eye-bank cornea

A. J. Quantock, C. Boote, R. D. Young, S. Hayes, H. Tanioka, S. Kawasaki, N. Ohta, T. Iida, N. Yagi, S. Kinoshita and K. M. Meek

Synopsis: The depth-profiled ultrastructure of the collagen fibrillar matrix in the swollen human eye-bank cornea was studied by microbeam small-angle X-ray scattering at a spatial resolution of 25 µm to provide information about collagen fibril diameter, spacing and orientation.

Online 3 March 2007


Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s341-s345  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806048369 ]

Large-scale and local-scale structures in polymer-blend films: a grazing-incidence ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering and sub-microbeam grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering investigation

P. Müller-Buschbaum, E. Bauer, E. Maurer, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke, M. Burghammer and C. Riekel

Synopsis: Large-scale structures in polymer-blend films are probed by grazing-incidence ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering. By using flow the structural complexity is increased and sub-microbeam grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering allows the local structure to be probed.

Online 2 December 2006


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s346-s349  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807007716 ]

Structural changes in gradient colloidal thin gold films deposited from aqueous solution

S. V. Roth, P. Müller-Buschbaum, A. Timmann, J. Perlich and R. Gehrke

Synopsis: A gradient in a colloidal thin film prepared from solution is investigated using microbeam grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. A cross-over and oscillation between a complete layer and depleted regions are detected.

Online 1 April 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s350-s354  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806043755 ]

GISAXS study of cavities and {113} defects induced by neon and helium implantation in silicon

D. Babonneau, S. Peripolli, M.-F. Beaufort, J.-F. Barbot and J.-P. Simon

Synopsis: The morphology of nanocavities and {113} defects formed by implantation of neon and helium ions in Si(001) is investigated by means of grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering experiments.

Online 28 November 2006


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s355-s360  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001331 ]

Self-assembled films of hydrophobin protein HFBIII from Trichoderma reesei

K. Kisko, G. R. Szilvay, E. Vuorimaa, H. Lemmetyinen, M. B. Linder, M. Torkkeli and R. Serimaa

Synopsis: Self-assembled films of hydrophobin HFBIII from the fungus Trichoderma reesei were studied at an air/water interface and on a solid substrate using grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and reflectivity.

Online 3 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s361-s362  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806056184 ]

Micellar structure of amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline) diblock copolymers

C. M. Papadakis, R. Ivanova, K. Lüdtke, K. Mortensen, P. K. Pranzas and R. Jordan

Synopsis: Poly[(n-nonyl-2-oxazoline)-b-(methyl-2-oxazoline)] diblock copolymers in aqueous solution form micelles of core-shell type. The core block is stretched, whereas the shell block is coiled.

Online 26 January 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s363-s366  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806053180 ]

Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study of porous dielectrics used in advanced microelectronic interconnections

J.-P. Simon, V. Jousseaume and G. Rolland

Synopsis: The nano-structure of porous ultra-low-k dielectrics, grown using four different processes, is studied by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. It is shown that the pore morphology can be either well defined percolated isotropic pores or anisotropic density fluctuations.

Online 19 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s367-s372  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807008199 ]

Time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering studies of lipid multibilayers with the insertion of amyloid peptide during the swelling process

J.-M. Lin, T.-L. Lin and U.-S. Jeng

Synopsis: The structural transition of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) multibilayers with the insertion of amyloid peptide 1-40 was studied by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering at different bilayer hydration levels. With the insertion of the amyloid peptide, the ripple phase of the membrane bilayers was suppressed at high humidity and the whole film can be swollen more uniformly at lower incubation time than the pure DPPC film supported on a silicon wafer.

Online 20 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s373-s376  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807002075 ]

Study of amorphous nanocrystalline thin silicon films by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering

D. Gracin, S. Bernstorff, P. Dubcek, A. Gajovic and K. Juraic

Synopsis: The nanostructure of thin silicon films composed of amorphous and crystalline phases was analysed by Raman spectroscopy and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. By Raman spectroscopy the crystalline fraction and the average individual crystal sizes were estimated while grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering detected nano sized `objects', presumably voids that are non-spherical in shape, non-uniformly distributed across the depth of the samples.

Online 9 February 2007


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J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s377-s382  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807004682 ]

Structural study of nanocrystalline nickel thin films

N. Radic, P. Dubcek, S. Bernstorff, I. Djerdj and A. M. Tonejc

Synopsis: Nanocrystalline nickel thin films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering, and have been studied by X-ray diffraction, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy. Results are given for nanocrystalline Ni (average grain size, unit-cell parameter), intercrystalline matter (size and shape of inhomogeneities) and surface topography of the prepared samples.

Online 6 April 2007


Industrial applications


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s383-s387  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807008023 ]

Small-angle scattering investigations of magnesium hydride used as a hydrogen storage material

P. K. Pranzas, M. Dornheim, U. Bösenberg, J. R. Ares Fernandez, G. Goerigk, S. V. Roth, R. Gehrke and A. Schreyer

Synopsis: Structural changes in magnesium hydride with and without metal oxide catalysts are characterized using small- and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy in order to analyse the relation between structure and hydrogen sorption kinetics.

Online 21 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s388-s392  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807000088 ]

Cylindrical nanochannels in ion-track polycarbonate membranes studied by small-angle X-ray scattering

G. Pépy, P. Boesecke, A. Kuklin, E. Manceau, B. Schiedt, Z. Siwy, M. Toulemonde and C. Trautmann

Synopsis: Small-angle X-ray scattering by nanochannels in track-etched membranes provide global information about the geometry of the nanochannels prepared with a systematic variation of UV irradiation, heavy-ions fluence and membrane material (amorphous polycarbonates).

Online 3 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s393-s396  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005080 ]

Residual orientation in micro-injection molded parts

J. Healy, G. H. Edward and R. B. Knott

Synopsis: The residual orientation in micro-injection molded polyethylene parts was examined using small-angle neutron scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The primary cause of residual orientation was found to be oriented crystal growth rather than chain orientation resulting from the injection molding process.

Online 21 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s397-s401  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807011697 ]

Characterization of two-dimensional ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering apparatus for application to rubber filled with spherical silica under elongation

Y. Shinohara, H. Kishimoto, K. Inoue, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, K. Muraoka, T. Mizoguchi and Y. Amemiya

Synopsis: Two-dimensional ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering apparatus at SPring-8 has been characterized and applied to stretched rubber filled with spherical silica particles.

Online 14 April 2007


Instrumentation and methods


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s402-s407  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806046309 ]

Iron K-edge anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering at 15-ID-D at the Advanced Photon Source

N. Kirby, D. Cookson, C. Buckley, E. Bovell and T. St Pierre

Synopsis: Analysis of the performance of a pinhole small-angle X-ray scattering instrument at 15-ID-D at the Advanced Photon Source and the development of a reliable method for iron K-edge anomalous small-angle scattering are described.

Online 23 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s408-s413  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003822 ]

A focusing-geometry small-angle neutron scattering instrument with a magnetic neutron lens

T. Oku, H. Iwase, T. Shinohara, S. Yamada, K. Hirota, S. Koizumi, J.- Suzuki, T. Hashimoto and H. M. Shimizu

Synopsis: A focusing-geometry small-angle neutron scattering (FSANS) instrument with a magnetic neutron lens based on an extended Halbach-type sextupole magnet has been constructed and tested. A minimum value of the measurable q range, q_{\rm min}, of 6.5 \times 10^{-4} Å-1 could be achieved by the FSANS instrument using a neutron wavelength \lambda = 6.6 Å with \Delta \lambda/\lambda = 0.13 for the full width at half maximum.

Online 23 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s414-s417  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807006280 ]

Wide-q observation from 10-4 to 2.0 Å-1 using a focusing and polarized neutron small-angle scattering spectrometer, SANS-J-II

H. Iwase, S. Koizumi, J.- Suzuki, T. Oku, H. Sasao, H. Tanaka, H. M. Shimizu and T. Hashimoto

Synopsis: A conventional pinhole-type small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SANS-J) was successfully reconstructed to be a focusing and polarized neutron small-angle scattering (SANS-J-II) instrument, with a wide q-region from ultra-small-angle scattering of 10-4 Å-1 to high-q of 2.0 Å-1.

Online 20 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s418-s422  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001306 ]

Anomalous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticles

U.-S. Jeng, Y.-H. Lai, H.-S. Sheu, J.-F. Lee, Y.-S. Sun, W.-T. Chuang, Y.-S. Huang and D.-G. Liu

Synopsis: Anomalous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to extract structural information on monometallic Pt and bimetallic Pt-Ru nanoparticles.

Online 7 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version][Supplementary Material]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s423-s427  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001100 ]

Reduction of two-dimensional small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering data

P. Boesecke

Synopsis: The general parametrization of a small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering experiment and a program package for quantitative data reduction are presented.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s428-s432  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807006310 ]

Monte Carlo simulations of the new small-angle neutron scattering instrument SANS-1 at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Forschungsneutronenquelle

R. Gilles, A. Ostermann and W. Petry

Synopsis: The optimization by Monte Carlo simulation of the components of the new small-angle scattering instrument SANS-1 at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Forschungsneutronenquelle (FRM II) is described.

Online 3 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s433-s438  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009314 ]

New two-dimensional data treatment software for small-angle scattering

G. Pépy

Synopsis: A description is given of a new interactive data-treatment program which was mostly developed to analyse two-dimensional small-angle data files. The treatment process is described through specific menus. Several examples show the most useful characteristics of this software.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s439-s441  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806045250 ]

CMOS flatpanel detectors for SAXS/WAXS experiments

N. Yagi and K. Inoue

Synopsis: A CMOS flatpanel detector from Hamamatsu Photonics was tested for SAXS/WAXS experiments at SPring-8.

Online 28 November 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s442-s446  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806050217 ]

Current status of the 40 m small-angle neutron scattering instrument development at the HANARO research reactor

Y.-S. Han, S.-M. Choi, T.-H. Kim, C.-H. Lee and H.-R. Kim

Synopsis: A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to optimize the newly developed small-angle neutron scattering instrument at the HANARO research reactor. The optimum design of the instrument was obtained based on simulation results.

Online 2 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s447-s452  [ doi:10.1107/S002188980700605X ]

Performance of the 36 m small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer at BATAN, Serpong, Indonesia

E. G. R. Putra, A. Ikram, E. Santoso and B. Bharoto

Synopsis: An inter-laboratory comparison of the 36 m small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectrometer at BATAN with those of other prominent SANS spectrometers is reported.

Online 20 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s453-s458  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009624 ]

Biological small-angle X-ray scattering facility at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

I. L. Smolsky, P. Liu, M. Niebuhr, K. Ito, T. M. Weiss and H. Tsuruta

Synopsis: Beamline 4-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is a small-angle X-ray scattering/diffraction facility dedicated to structural studies on mostly noncrystalline biological systems. This article outlines recent technological developments and specialized instrumentation for structural biology research at improved time and spatial resolutions.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s459-s462  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806045833 ]

Development of an ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering instrument for probing the microstructure and the dynamics of soft matter

M. Sztucki and T. Narayanan

Synopsis: A low background Bonse-Hart camera for small-angle X-ray scattering is presented. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by two representative applications in soft matter.

Online 12 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s463-s465  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806050813 ]

The new V12 ultra-small-angle neutron scattering and tomography instrument at the Hahn-Meitner Institut

M. Strobl, W. Treimer, C. Ritzoulis, A. G. Wagh, S. Abbas and I. Manke

Synopsis: The latest developments on instrumentation improvements at the V12 double-crystal and imaging instrument at the Hahn-Meitner Institut are presented. Ways to combine instruments are described and examples of scientific applications from different fields are presented.

Online 19 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s466-s470  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806045444 ]

A new experimental station for simultaneous X-ray microbeam scanning for small- and wide-angle scattering and fluorescence at BESSY II

O. Paris, C. Li, S. Siegel, G. Weseloh, F. Emmerling, H. Riesemeier, A. Erko and P. Fratzl

Synopsis: A new instrument for microbeam small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray fluorescence is available at the microfocus beamline at BESSY II. The instrument is optimized for microbeam scanning experiments of hierarchically structured materials.

Online 2 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s471-s473  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055257 ]

The new very-small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer at Laboratoire Léon Brillouin

S. Désert, V. Thévenot, J. Oberdisse and A. Brûlet

Synopsis: A description is given of a new compact very-small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer featuring a double-supermirror monochromator, multibeam collimation and a high-resolution two-dimensional position-sensitive detector.

Online 18 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s474-s479  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807014392 ]

Focusing and polarized neutron small-angle scattering spectrometer (SANS-J-II). The challenge of observation over length scales from an ångström to a micrometre

S. Koizumi, H. Iwase, J.- Suzuki, T. Oku, R. Motokawa, H. Sasao, H. Tanaka, D. Yamaguchi, H. M. Shimizu and T. Hashimoto

Synopsis: By using a focusing lens, a pinhole small-angle neutron spectrometer was reconstructed into a focusing ultra-small-angle scattering spectrometer (SANS-J-II).

Online 21 April 2007


Magnetic materials and superconductors


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s480-s484  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005390 ]

Anomalous grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering investigation on the surface morphology of an FePt magnetic nanoparticle monolayer on functional modulated substrates

T.-W. Huang, K.-L. Yu, Y.-F. Liao and C.-H. Lee

Synopsis: Anomalous grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering was used to verify that FePt nanoparticles remain intact under an Au overlayer during annealing at 1073 K.

Online 2 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s485-s488  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806047807 ]

Investigation of symmetry-breaking flux-line lattice phases in superconductors by small-angle neutron scattering

E. Forgan, M. Laver and C. Bowell

Synopsis: The interpretation of complicated small-angle diffraction patterns from multiple flux-line lattice domains in the mixed state of a type-II superconductor is discussed, with particular reference to flux lattice phases in niobium.

Online 9 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s489-s494  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055804 ]

Structure of nickel nanoparticles in a microcrystalline cellulose matrix studied using anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering

K. Pirkkalainen, U. Vainio, K. Kisko, T. Elbra, T. Kohout, N. E. Kotelnikova and R. Serimaa

Synopsis: Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering was used to characterize the size distribution of nickel nanoparticles that were synthesized in a microcrystalline cellulose matrix.

Online 20 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s495-s500  [ doi:10.1107/S002188980700091X ]

A comparison of methods for the measurement of the particle-size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles

R. C. Woodward, J. Heeris, T. G. St. Pierre, M. Saunders, E. P. Gilbert, M. Rutnakornpituk, Q. Zhang and J. S. Riffle

Synopsis: Transmission electron microscopy, magnetic measurements and small-angle neutron scattering are compared as methods for determining the particle-size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles.

Online 7 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s501-s505  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001653 ]

Mixed magnetic phase in 6H-type BaFeO3-[delta]

K. Mori, T. Kamiyama, H. Kobayashi, T. Otomo, K. Nishiyama, M. Sugiyama, K. Itoh, T. Fukunaga and S. Ikeda

Synopsis: The magnetic properties of 6H-type BaFeO3-[delta] were studied using small-angle neutron scattering, positive-muon spin relaxation and magnetization measurements.

Online 9 February 2007


Noncrystalline materials


[HTML version][PDF version][Supplementary Material]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s506-s511  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807001616 ]

The application of distance distribution functions to structural analysis of core-shell particles

O. O. Mykhaylyk, A. J. Ryan, N. Tzokova and N. Williams

Synopsis: The internal structure of core-shell particles has been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering using the method of contrast variation. The indirect Fourier transform yielded distance distribution functions that were compared with three models of increasing sophistication: simple core-shell, core shell with spherical disks and core-shell with stochastic electron density variations.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s512-s516  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807000507 ]

Density fluctuations in oxide glasses investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering

C. Levelut, R. Le Parc, A. Faivre, R. Brüning, B. Champagnon, V. Martinez, J.-P. Simon, F. Bley and J.-L. Hazemann

Synopsis: Three examples of the use of small-angle X-ray scattering in the determination of density fluctuations on the nanometre scale in silica glasses are given: the influence of thermal history and OH content; the determination of static compressibility; and temperature scanning small-angle X-ray scattering as an alternative to temperature scanning calorimetry.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s517-s521  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807004992 ]

On the heterogeneous character of water's amorphous polymorphism

M. M. Koza, R. P. May and H. Schober

Synopsis: Two spatial regimes of structural heterogeneity have been identified in amorphous ice structures by small-angle neutron scattering experiments. These are a transient contrast change on a nanometre scale being equally reflected by changes in diffraction data, and a Porod-limit scattering on a micrometre scale demonstrating the presence of interfaces in the amorphous samples.

Online 2 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s522-s526  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055968 ]

Pore lattice deformation in ordered mesoporous silica studied by in situ small-angle X-ray diffraction

G. A. Zickler, S. Jähnert, S. S. Funari, G. H. Findenegg and O. Paris

Synopsis: Sorption and capillary condensation in mesoporous silica were studied by in situ small-angle X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Analysis of the diffraction peaks reveals deformations of the pore lattice due to capillary condensation and evaporation, respectively.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s527-s531  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055658 ]

Mesoscopic structure in near-critical mixtures of D2O and 3-methylpyridine with salts

K. Sadakane, H. Seto, H. Endo and M. Kojima

Synopsis: Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were performed on mixtures of 3-methylpyridine, D2O, and salts to investigate concentration fluctuations and structures in the vicinity of the critical point. The results can be interpreted in terms of a strong coupling of the critical fluctuation and the solvation effect of salt ions.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s532-s536  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807005559 ]

Polarized small-angle neutron scattering study of two-dimensional spatially ordered systems of nickel nanowires

N. A. Grigoryeva, S. V. Grigoriev, H. Eckerlebe, A. A. Eliseev, A. V. Lukashin and K. S. Napolskii

Synopsis: Polarized small-angle neutron scattering is used for the characterization of the structure and magnetic properties of two-dimensional spatially ordered systems of ferromagnetic nickel nanowires. These systems are promising for high-density data storage devices.

Online 1 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s537-s539  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807000751 ]

Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of expanded fluid Se in the semiconductor-metal transition region using synchrotron radiation

M. Inui, K. Matsuda, K. Tamura, K. Satoh, A. Sobajima and H. Tada

Synopsis: Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements for expanded fluid Se were carried out up to the semiconductor-metal transition region. A broad peak in the small-angle X-ray scattering profiles appears, suggesting a correlation length of 50 Å.

Online 20 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s540-s543  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807004426 ]

Fractal aggregates of the Pt nanoparticles synthesized by the polyol process and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) reduction

J.-M. Lin, T.-L. Lin, U.-S. Jeng, Y.-J. Zhong, C.-T. Yeh and T.-Y. Chen

Synopsis: Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to characterize the size and aggregation behavior of the Pt nanoparticles synthesized in the polyol process and the unusual poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) reduction.

Online 24 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s544-s548  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807002713 ]

Reverse Monte Carlo analysis for small-angle scattering of expanded fluid Hg: connection to the wide-angle structure factor

K. Hagita, T. Arai, M. Inui, K. Matsuda and K. Tamura

Synopsis: A preliminary result of reverse Monte Carlo analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data for expanded fluid Hg with the help of wide-angle X-ray diffraction data in the same thermodynamic state is presented. To see the large density fluctuation associated with liquid-vapor critical phenomena, a three-dimensional configuration of 100000 Hg atoms is modeled.

Online 9 February 2007


Polymers


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s549-s552  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807011740 ]

Study on two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering of in situ silica filled nanocomposite elastomer during deformation

Y. Ikeda, Y. Yasuda, S. Yamamoto and Y. Morita

Synopsis: In situ silica filled soft nanocomposite was prepared by the sol-gel reaction of tetraethoxysilane in peroxide-crosslinked isoprene rubber. The morphological change of the in situ silica particles during the uniaxial stretching and retracting processes was investigated by SAXS.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s553-s557  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807006255 ]

Small-angle X-ray scattering study on conformation of poly(sodium L-glutamate) in NaCl and NaF aqueous solutions

S. Shimizu, Y. Muroga, T. Hyono and K. Kurita

Synopsis: Local conformations of poly(sodium L-glutamate) in NaCl and NaF aqueous solutions are analyzed with small-angle X-ray scattering, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

Online 20 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s558-s563  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807011259 ]

Surface free energies of isotactic polybutene-1 tetragonal and trigonal crystals: the role of conformational entropy of side chains

M. Yamashita and M. Kato

Synopsis: Lateral surface free energies [sigma] of isotactic polybutene-1 trigonal and tetragonal crystals grown in the melt have been determined from small-angle X-ray scattering experiments, differential scanning calorimetry and in situ observation of crystal growth kinetics. The [sigma] value of the trigonal crystals is about seven times as large as the value theoretically estimated, while [sigma] for the tetragonal crystals is roughly in agreement with the estimation.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s564-s567  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806054598 ]

Fracture of poly(vinylidene fluoride): a combined synchrotron and laboratory in-situ X-ray scattering study

G. A. Maier, G. M. Wallner, R. W. Lang, J. Keckes, H. Amenitsch and P. Fratzl

Synopsis: Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray scattering was used to study the plastic zone formation and fracture processes at different strain rates in poly(vinylidene fluoride). This gives new insight into the micro-mechanisms of cavitation, lamellae separation and fibril formation.

Online 10 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s568-s572  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009673 ]

Living anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate controlled by metal-free phosphazene catalyst as observed by small-angle neutron scattering, gel-permeation chromatography and UV-visible spectroscopy

N. Miyamoto, Y. Inoue, S. Koizumi and T. Hashimoto

Synopsis: Phosphazene (PZN) catalyst, a mixture of PZN and a co-catalyst 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (Irgacure 184; IRG), and polymethylmethacrylate prepared by catalytic living anionic polymerization using the PZN catalyst and IRG have been observed for the first time by small-angle neutron scattering and UV-visible spectroscopy to elucidate the aggregation behavior of the PZN molecules and the state of living chain ends in a living polymer solution.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s573-s576  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806048229 ]

Gibbs-Thomson analysis of crystalline poly(9,9-di-n-octyl-2,7-fluorene)

S. H. Chen, C. H. Su, A. C. Su, Y. S. Sun, U. Jeng and S. A. Chen

Synopsis: A value of 76 kJ mol-1 as the work of fold for the title polymer was obtained via Gibbs-Thomson analysis. This value significantly exceeds those of typical polymers, reflecting the backbone rigidity while being consistent with the large-loop folds proposed for this particular polymer of conjugated backbone.

Online 2 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s577-s580  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806052939 ]

Small-angle X-ray scattering from polystyrene polymacromonomers with relatively short main chains

Y. Nakamura

Synopsis: Small-angle X-ray scattering from polymacromonomers is described.

Online 23 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s581-s584  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807018055 ]

Structural formation and many-body effect of concentrated dendrimer solutions by computer simulations

T. Terao

Synopsis: Structural formation and effective interaction in a charged dendrimer solution are investigated by parallel stochastic molecular dynamics simulations.

Online 21 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s585-s589  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807013453 ]

Effect of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate on the phase diagram of a liquid-crystalline amphiphilic diblock copolymer

T. Yamada, J. Li, C. Koyanagi, T. Iyoda and H. Yoshida

Synopsis: Phase transitions and nanometre-scale ordered structures of a binary system of a liquid-crystalline amphiphilic diblock copolymer containing polyethylene oxide and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s590-s593  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806056081 ]

Complexity of silicate/aluminosilicate polymerization: some insights using a small-angle X-ray scattering study

P. S. Singh

Synopsis: The growth processes of silicate (aluminosilicate) particles starting from clear homogeneous solutions of silicate monomers/oligomers or colloidal solutions of silica nanoparticles were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering.

Online 20 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s594-s598  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807000878 ]

Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies on the structural evolution of microbial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

K. Heo, J. Yoon, K. S. Jin, S. Jin, G. Kim, H. Sato, Y. Ozaki, M. M. Satkowski, I. Noda and M. Ree

Synopsis: The primary and secondary crystallization behaviors of microbially synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) were studied in detail by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering with a synchrotron-radiation source.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s599-s604  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807003512 ]

A small-angle X-ray scattering study of the effect of chain architecture on the shear-induced crystallization of branched and linear poly(ethylene terephthalate)

T. Hanley, D. Sutton, E. Heeley, G. Moad and R. Knott

Synopsis: Reactive extrusion of PET with branching and chain-extension agents results in enhanced rheological properties. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to establish the crystallization kinetics and the molecular architecture following a step shear in the melt. Linear PET exhibited isotropic crystallization that was slower with increasing molecular weight, while long-chain-branched PET showed the opposite trend.

Online 17 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s605-s608  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806056007 ]

A quantitative analysis of small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction curves of homogeneous ethylene-1-octene copolymers

S. Rabiej and M. Rabiej

Synopsis: The parameters of lamellar stacks in copolymers were determined from matching of the theoretical and experimental scattering curves and compared with the parameters derived from the correlation function. Determined crystallinity values were compared with the results obtained from the wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) method.

Online 20 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s609-s613  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806053374 ]

Time domain effects in the single-chain dynamics of semidilute and concentrated polymer solutions

T. Y. Tchesskaya

Synopsis: Two dynamical regimes in time scales are predicted: Zimm and Rouse-like motion. The principal mechanism for the hydrodynamic screening is a dynamic phenomenon.

Online 10 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s614-s619  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806054124 ]

Synchrotron X-ray scattering and reflectivity studies of the structure of low dielectric constant SiOCH thin films prepared from bistrimethylsilylmethane by chemical vapor deposition

K. Heo, K. S. Oh, J. Yoon, K. S. Jin, S. Jin, C. K. Choi and M. Ree

Synopsis: A series of low dielectric constant, nanoporous SiOCH dielectric thin films with nanometre-scale thicknesses were prepared by plasma chemical vapor deposition of bistrimethylsilylmethane precursor and oxygen gas, and characterized in detail by grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and specular X-ray reflectivity analyses with synchrotron radiation sources, along with spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis.

Online 23 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s620-s625  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806052289 ]

Structural analysis of thin films of novel polynorbornene derivatives by grazing incidence X-ray scattering and specular X-ray reflectivity along with ellipsometry

T. J. Lee, G. Byun, K. S. Jin, K. Heo, G. Kim, S. Y. Kim, I. Cho and M. Ree

Synopsis: The structure and properties of two novel polynorbornene derivatives, chiral poly(norbornene acid methyl ester) and racemic poly(norbornene acid n-butyl ester) in supported thin films were investigated in detail by synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray scattering, specular reflectivity and ellipsometry.

Online 23 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s626-s630  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806047509 ]

Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity studies of nanoporous organosilicate thin films with low dielectric constants

W. Oh, Y. Hwang, T. J. Shin, B. Lee, J.-S. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Brennan, A. Mehta and M. Ree

Synopsis: Low dielectric constant thin films containing closed nanopores were prepared by thermal processing of blend films of a thermally curable organosilicate precursor and a thermally labile reactive six-arm porogen in various compositions, and their structure and properties were characterized in detail by synchrotron X-ray reflectivity along with thermogravimetry and transmission electron microscopy.

Online 23 December 2006


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s631-s636  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055865 ]

Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering studies on templating nanopores in networked polymer thin films with a multi-armed porogen

K. S. Jin, K. Heo, W. Oh, J. Yoon, B. Lee, Y. Hwang, J.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Park, K.-W. Kim, J. Kim, T. Chang and M. Ree

Synopsis: The miscibility of a six-armed star porogen in a crosslinkable organosilicate dielectric precursor and the mechanism of pore generation in the organosilicate thin films by sacrificial thermal degradation of the porogen were quantitatively investigated by using in situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and thermogravimetry.

Online 26 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s637-s641  [ doi:10.1107/S002188980700461X ]

Melting behavior of polymorphic crystals of poly(trimethylene 2,6-naphthalate) studied by simultaneous synchrotron X-ray scattering and thermal analysis

W.-T. Chuang, P.-D. Hong, C.-H. Chen, H.-S. Sheu and U.-S. Jeng

Synopsis: The polymorphic crystallization and melting behavior of poly(trimethylene 2,6-naphthalate) have been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and simultaneous wide-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry.

Online 17 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s642-s644  [ doi:10.1107/S002188980700578X ]

In situ investigation of annealing effect on lamellar stacking structure of polyethylene thin films by synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering

S. Sasaki, H. Masunaga, H. Tajiri, K. Inoue, H. Okuda, H. Noma, K. Honda, A. Takahara and M. Takata

Synopsis: The annealing effect on lamellar stacking structure of polyethylene thin films prepared on silicon wafers has been investigated in terms of molecular- and meso -scale regularity by in-situ synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements.

Online 20 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s645-s649  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807004062 ]

In situ and time-resolved ultra small-angle neutron scattering observation on growing poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-polystyrene via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer living radical polymerization

R. Motokawa, S. Koizumi, Y. Zhao and T. Hashimoto

Synopsis: We investigated the time evolution of polymerization-induced molecular self-assembly, appearing in a reaction solution of living radical polymerization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-polystyrene by employing in situ and time-resolved ultra small-angle neutron scattering and time-resolved gel permeation chromatography methods.

Online 20 March 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s650-s655  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807011570 ]

Lamellar crystal thickness transition of melt-crystallized isotactic polybutene-1 observed by small-angle X-ray scattering

M. Yamashita and M. Kato

Synopsis: The first-order long period, the second-order long period and lamellar crystal thickness lc of isotactic polybutene-1 have been investigated for crystallization in the melt over a wide range (313.2-363.2 K) of crystallization temperatures by small-angle X-ray scattering experiments and density measurements. The crystal thickness lc demonstrates two linear dependences on inverse supercooling and a transition from one dependence to the other has been observed around 338.2 K, where lc becomes comparable with the radius of gyration Rg of the samples.

Online 14 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s656-s661  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807008497 ]

Structural development of dynamically asymmetric polymer blends under uniaxial stretching

H. Takeno, H. Uehara, S. Murakami, M. Takenaka, M. I. Kim, N. Nagasawa and S. Sasaki

Synopsis: The structural change during uniaxial stretching was investigated by use of time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering for dynamically asymmetric polymer blends irradiated by an electron beam. A dominant mode at the early stage of the stretch-induced enhancement of concentration fluctuations exists, similar to early stage spinodal decomposition for fluid mixtures.

Online 1 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s662-s665  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807002981 ]

Concentration fluctuations induced by orientation fluctuations in polybutadiene-4-cyano-4'-n-octylbiphenyl mixtures

H. Shimizu, M. Takenaka, S. Nishitsuji and H. Hasegawa

Synopsis: The changes in concentration fluctuations of polymer-liquid crystal binary mixtures with temperature were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering in their one-phase region and in the isotropic state of the liquid crystal. The concentration fluctuations consist of two modes: an OZD mode expressed by the Ornstein-Zernike-Debye equation with a correlation length [xi] and a DB mode expressed by the Debye-Buche equation with a correlation length l.

Online 21 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s666-s668  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806054409 ]

Small-angle X-ray study of the three-dimensional collagen/mineral superstructure in intramuscular fish bone

H. Zhou, C. Burger, I. Sics, B. S. Hsiao, B. Chu, L. Graham and M. J. Glimcher

Synopsis: Small-angle meridional reflections and near-equatorial diffuse scattering from intramuscular shad/herring bone were analyzed based on two-dimensional fitting schemes that take preferred orientation effects into account.

Online 6 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s669-s674  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806056056 ]

Quantitative analysis of molecularly stacked layer structures in supported organic thin films by synchrotron grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

J. Yoon, S. Choi, S. Jin, K. S. Jin, K. Heo and M. Ree

Synopsis: A grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) formula is derived for molecularly stacked layer structures in substrate-supported nanoscale thin films. Using this formula, the GIXS data obtained for S-docosanylcysteine thin films supported with silicon substrates are analyzed quantitatively, providing information on the structural parameters and orientation of the films.

Online 20 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s675-s679  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806054999 ]

Discrepancy in determination of [chi] parameters by melting point depression versus small-angle neutron scattering in blends of deuterated polycarbonate and isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate)

T. Kyu, R. A. Matkar, D. S. Lim and C. Ko

Synopsis: The discrepancy in the [chi] interaction parameters of deuterated polycarbonate/isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) blends as determined by melting point depression and small-angle scattering is reconciled by relaxing Flory's assumption of complete rejection of solvent from the crystal phase. The phase diagram of crystalline polymer blends, involving liquid-liquid phase separation and solid-liquid phase transitions, has been established.

Online 18 January 2007


Surfaces and interfaces


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s680-s683  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807002452 ]

X-ray reflectivity studies on the deoxyribonucleic acid adsorption by 3-[beta]-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)carbamoyl]cholesterol monolayer with divalent ions

T.-L. Lin, J.-C. Wu, U.-S. Jeng and H.-Y. Lee

Synopsis: The effect of adding divalent ions on the deoxyribonucleic acid adsorption by a cationic lipid monolayer at the air-water interface was investigated by X-ray reflectivity.

Online 9 February 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s684-s686  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806056457 ]

Green thin polymer film metallization using supercritical carbon dioxide

T. Koga, B. Kugler, J. Loewenstein, J. Jerome and M. H. Rafailovich

Synopsis: Thin polymer film metallization using supercritical carbon dioxide as a solvent has been characterized by means of X-ray reflectivity and peel test.

Online 20 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s687-s690  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806051375 ]

Thermal radiation method: proposal of a new technique for measuring interfacial or surface fluctuations

Y. Kajihara, Y. Ohmasa and M. Yao

Synopsis: A thermal radiation method is proposed as a new technique for measuring interfacial or surface fluctuations. The principle is explained and an example of an experiment using the method is given.

Online 12 December 2006


Theory and modelling


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s691-s695  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889806055130 ]

The puzzle-interlayer model: an approach to the analysis of tightly packed arrangements of hard particles

W. Gille

Synopsis: The small-angle scattering (SAS) structure functions of a random two-phase particle arrangement, constructed from the separated parts of a tessellation (puzzle particles), are analyzed. The SAS intensity depends on the shape of the puzzle pieces and on the thickness of the intermediate layer between them. Based on the chord length distribution densities of the interlayer and of the `puzzle particles', the approach allows the analytical description of a wide spectrum of random particle shapes. The `dead leaves' and the Poisson plane mosaic are considered in more detail.

Online 20 January 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s696-s700  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807009387 ]

Multiple-length-scale small-angle X-ray scattering analysis on maghemite nanocomposites

A. Millan, A. Urtizberea, N. J. O. Silva, P. Boesecke, E. Natividad, F. Palacio, E. Snoeck, L. Soriano, A. Gutiérrez and C. Quirós

Synopsis: We report small-angle X-ray scattering analysis of maghemite polymer nanocomposites containing spherical particles uniformly distributed in the polymer matrix. Scattering intensity curves show features characteristic of multiscale structured systems. Based on the Beaucage approach, we conclude that the nanoparticle size increases with the iron loading used in the preparation of the nanocomposite.

Online 6 April 2007


[HTML version][PDF version]  [Open access]

J. Appl. Cryst. (2007). 40, s701-s705  [ doi:10.1107/S0021889807012447 ]

Evaluation of multiple small-angle neutron scattering including magnetic interactions

J. Saroun

Synopsis: Formulae describing multiple small-angle scattering of polarized neutrons by ferromagnetic inhomogeneities are derived. The results show an anomalous distribution of scattered neutrons due to the simultaneous effect of multiple scattering and the spin dependence of the single-scattering cross section.

Online 14 April 2007


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