Journal of Applied Crystallography

Volume 46, Part 1 (February 2013)

research papers

J. Appl. Cryst. (2013). 46, 165-172    [ doi:10.1107/S0021889812047887 ]

Grazing-incidence transmission X-ray scattering: surface scattering in the Born approximation

X. Lu, K. G. Yager, D. Johnston, C. T. Black and B. M. Ocko

Abstract: Determination of the three-dimensional order in thin nanostructured films remains challenging. Real-space imaging methods, including electron microscopies and scanning-probe methods, have difficulty reconstructing the depth of a film and suffer from limited statistical sampling. X-ray and neutron scattering have emerged as powerful complementary techniques but have substantial data collection and analysis challenges. This article describes a new method, grazing-incidence transmission small-angle X-ray scattering, which allows for fast scattering measurements that are not burdened by the refraction and reflection effects that have to date plagued grazing-incidence X-ray scattering. In particular, by arranging a sample/beam geometry wherein the scattering exits through the edge of the substrate, it is possible to record scattering images that are well described by straightforward (Born approximation) scattering models.

Keywords: grazing-incidence transmission small-angle X-ray scattering; Born approximation.

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