(a) XANES region of the vanadium K edge for the V–Al–C–N coatings in the range X = -18 mm to X = 30 mm. The pre-edge peak decreases with increasing X, while the white line increases as indicated by arrows. (b) Influence of the coating thickness on the characteristic edge features at mm. The measurement of the thick V–Al–C–N coating deposited on cemented carbide is indicated by symbols; the line corresponds to the coating on Si(001) with about 1/3 of the layer thickness. (c) XANES spectrum of the 40 nm VC coating (black line), the VC1-x coating (black squares) and the VN1-x coating (open circles) measured for .