Characterization of the chamber performance in fast bulk solvent evaporation mode. (a) The time evolution of the substrate temperature for a Ts setpoint of 333 K. (b) Transmitted X-ray intensity during a vertical (z) scan of the cell before starting the evaporation. The NP-solution–vapour interface (z = 1080 µm) and the buried substrate–NP-solution interface (z = 0 µm) are highlighted. (c) Some of the vertical scans performed during the evaporation of the solvent. Complete macroscopic evaporation takes about 14 min. (d) Evolution of the NP-solution–vapour interface vertical z position as a function of time [referring to (a)], obtained from the vertical scans presented in inset (c). The red line is a sixth-order polynomial fit. (e) Time evolution of toluene viscosity as a consequence of the changing sample temperature [inset (a)], neglecting the contribution due to solution volume shrinking. (f) Reference values for the toluene as a function of temperature. (g) Evolution of the Pe number during the evaporation process.