(a) One-dimensional-reduced WAXS curves measured in the temperature range from 400 to 440 K at a rate of 20 K min−1. The insets show diffraction intensities and their first derivatives for the 202 reflection (heating ramp) and 103 reflection (cooling ramp). (b) Amplitude of the temperature modulation recorded simultaneously with X-ray diffraction for the heating ramp. The inset gives the curve corresponding to cooling and two-dimensional WAXS patterns measured at different temperatures. (c) Quasi-isothermal experiment at 430 K showing the heating effect of a fast-shutter-modulated X-ray beam (top). The resulting variation of the particle temperature and modulation amplitude is shown in the middle and bottom panels, respectively.