Greek letters and special symbols

A limited number of special characters (such as Greek letters, sub- and superscripts, and a few others) may be indicated in CIF text for typesetting purposes, using the special codes listed below.

Greek letters

In general, the corresponding letter of the Latin alphabet, prefixed by a backslash character. The complete set is:

tex2html_wrap_inline30 A \a \A alpha
tex2html_wrap_inline32 B \b \B beta
tex2html_wrap_inline34 X \c \C chi
tex2html_wrap_inline36 tex2html_wrap_inline38 \d \D delta
tex2html_wrap_inline40 E \e \E epsilon
tex2html_wrap_inline42 tex2html_wrap_inline44 \f \F phi
tex2html_wrap_inline46 tex2html_wrap_inline48 \g \G gamma
tex2html_wrap_inline50 H \h \H eta
tex2html_wrap_inline52 I \i \I iota
tex2html_wrap_inline54 K \k \K kappa
tex2html_wrap_inline56 tex2html_wrap_inline58 \l \L lambda
tex2html_wrap_inline60 M \m \M mu
tex2html_wrap_inline62 N \n \N nu
o O \o \O omicron
tex2html_wrap_inline64 tex2html_wrap_inline66 \p \P pi
tex2html_wrap_inline68 tex2html_wrap_inline70 \q \Q theta
tex2html_wrap_inline72 R \r \R rho
tex2html_wrap_inline74 tex2html_wrap_inline76 \s \S sigma
tex2html_wrap_inline78 T \t \T tau
tex2html_wrap_inline80 tex2html_wrap_inline82 \u \U upsilon
tex2html_wrap_inline84 tex2html_wrap_inline86 \w \W omega
tex2html_wrap_inline88 tex2html_wrap_inline90 \x \X xi
tex2html_wrap_inline92 tex2html_wrap_inline94 \y \Y psi
tex2html_wrap_inline96 Z \z \Z zeta

Accented letters

Accents should be indicated by using the following codes before the letter to be modified (i.e. use \'e for an acute e):

\' acute (é) \" umlaut (ü) \= overbar
\` grave (à) \~ tilde (ñ) \. overdot
\^ circumflex (â) \; ogonek \< hacek
\, cedilla (ç) \> Hungarian umlaut \( breve

Other characters

Other special alphabetic characters should be indicated as follows:

\%a a-ring (å) \?i dotless i \&s German "ss" (ß)
\/o o-slash (ø) \/l Polish l (tex2html_wrap120) \/d barred d

Capital letters may also be used in these codes, so an ångström symbol (Å) may be given as \%A.

Superscripts and subscripts should be indicated by bracketing relevant characters with circumflex or tilde characters, thus:

superscripts Csp^3^ for Csp3
subscripts U~eq~ for Ueq

The closing symbol is essential to return to normal text.

Other codes are also recognized by the IUCr software. These are:

\% degree (°) \\times ×
-- dash +- ±
--- single bond -+ tex2html_wrap_inline104
\\db double bond \\square square
\\tb triple bond \\neq tex2html_wrap_inline108
\\ddb delocalized double bond \\rangle tex2html_wrap_inline110
\\sim tex2html_wrap_inline98 \\langle tex2html_wrap_inline112
(N.B. ~  is the code for subscript) \\rightarrow tex2html_wrap_inline114
\\simeq tex2html_wrap_inline100 \\leftarrow tex2html_wrap_inline116
\\infty tex2html_wrap_inline102    

Note that \\db, \\tb and \\ddb should always be followed by a space, e.g. C=C is denoted by C\\db C.

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