Acta Crystallographica Section A
//journals.iucr.org/a/issues/2024/03/00/index.html
Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances covers theoretical and fundamental aspects of the structure of matter. The journal is the prime forum for research in diffraction physics and the theory of crystallographic structure determination by diffraction methods using X-rays, neutrons and electrons. The structures include periodic and aperiodic crystals, and non-periodic disordered materials, and the corresponding Bragg, satellite and diffuse scattering, thermal motion and symmetry aspects. Spatial resolutions range from the subatomic domain in charge-density studies to nanodimensional imperfections such as dislocations and twin walls. The chemistry encompasses metals, alloys, and inorganic, organic and biological materials. Structure prediction and properties such as the theory of phase transformations are also covered.enCopyright (c) 2024 International Union of Crystallography2024-05-01International Union of CrystallographyInternational Union of Crystallographyhttp://journals.iucr.orgurn:issn:2053-2733Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances covers theoretical and fundamental aspects of the structure of matter. The journal is the prime forum for research in diffraction physics and the theory of crystallographic structure determination by diffraction methods using X-rays, neutrons and electrons. The structures include periodic and aperiodic crystals, and non-periodic disordered materials, and the corresponding Bragg, satellite and diffuse scattering, thermal motion and symmetry aspects. Spatial resolutions range from the subatomic domain in charge-density studies to nanodimensional imperfections such as dislocations and twin walls. The chemistry encompasses metals, alloys, and inorganic, organic and biological materials. Structure prediction and properties such as the theory of phase transformations are also covered.text/htmlActa Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances, Volume 80, Part 3, 2024textweekly62002-01-01T00:00+00:003802024-05-01Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of CrystallographyActa Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances226urn:issn:2053-2733med@iucr.orgMay 20242024-05-01Acta Crystallographica Section Ahttp://journals.iucr.org/logos/rss10a.gif
//journals.iucr.org/a/issues/2024/03/00/index.html
Still imageA digital distance on the kisrhombille tiling
http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?nv5010
The kisrhombille tiling is the dual tessellation of one of the semi-regular tessellations. It consists of right-angled triangle tiles with 12 different orientations. An adequate coordinate system for the tiles of the grid has been defined that allows a formal description of the grid. In this paper, two tiles are considered to be neighbors if they share at least one point in their boundary. Paths are sequences of tiles such that any two consecutive tiles are neighbors. The digital distance is defined as the minimum number of steps in a path between the tiles, and the distance formula is proven through constructing minimum paths. In fact, the distance between triangles is almost twice the hexagonal distance of their embedding hexagons.Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of Crystallographyurn:issn:2053-2733Kablan, F.Vizvári, B.Nagy, B.2024-03-11doi:10.1107/S2053273323010628International Union of CrystallographyThe kisrhombille tiling is the dual of one of the eight semi-regular tilings and is built up by right-angled triangles in 12 orientations. In this paper, an appropriate coordinate system is presented and the digital distance is defined and computed by the number of steps of neighboring triangles, where two triangles are considered to be neighbors if they share at least one point on their border.ENhexagonal griddigital geometrydigital distanceThe kisrhombille tiling is the dual tessellation of one of the semi-regular tessellations. It consists of right-angled triangle tiles with 12 different orientations. An adequate coordinate system for the tiles of the grid has been defined that allows a formal description of the grid. In this paper, two tiles are considered to be neighbors if they share at least one point in their boundary. Paths are sequences of tiles such that any two consecutive tiles are neighbors. The digital distance is defined as the minimum number of steps in a path between the tiles, and the distance formula is proven through constructing minimum paths. In fact, the distance between triangles is almost twice the hexagonal distance of their embedding hexagons.text/htmlA digital distance on the kisrhombille tilingtext3802024-03-11Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of CrystallographyActa Crystallographica Section Aresearch papers226236The single-atom R1: a new optimization method to solve crystal structures
http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?ae5140
A crystal structure with N atoms in its unit cell can be solved starting from a model with atoms 1 to j − 1 being located. To locate the next atom j, the method uses a modified definition of the traditional R1 factor where its dependencies on the locations of atoms j + 1 to N are removed. This modified R1 is called the single-atom R1 (sR1), because the locations of atoms 1 to j − 1 in sR1 are the known parameters, and only the location of atom j is unknown. Finding the correct position of atom j translates thus into the optimization of the sR1 function, with respect to its fractional coordinates, xj, yj, zj. Using experimental data, it has been verified that an sR1 has a hole near each missing atom. Further, it has been verified that an algorithm based on sR1, hereby called the sR1 method, can solve crystal structures (with up to 156 non-hydrogen atoms in the unit cell). The strategy to carry out this calculation has also been optimized. The main feature of the sR1 method is that, starting from a single arbitrarily positioned atom, the structure is gradually revealed. With the user's help to delete poorly determined parts of the structure, the sR1 method can build the model to a high final quality. Thus, sR1 is a viable and useful tool for solving crystal structures.Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of Crystallographyurn:issn:2053-2733Zhang, X.Donahue, J.P.2024-03-18doi:10.1107/S2053273324001554International Union of CrystallographyA new optimization method based on a new concept of single-atom R1 (sR1) for solving crystal structures is presented.ENstructure solutionglobal minimizationsingle-atom R1molecular replacementA crystal structure with N atoms in its unit cell can be solved starting from a model with atoms 1 to j − 1 being located. To locate the next atom j, the method uses a modified definition of the traditional R1 factor where its dependencies on the locations of atoms j + 1 to N are removed. This modified R1 is called the single-atom R1 (sR1), because the locations of atoms 1 to j − 1 in sR1 are the known parameters, and only the location of atom j is unknown. Finding the correct position of atom j translates thus into the optimization of the sR1 function, with respect to its fractional coordinates, xj, yj, zj. Using experimental data, it has been verified that an sR1 has a hole near each missing atom. Further, it has been verified that an algorithm based on sR1, hereby called the sR1 method, can solve crystal structures (with up to 156 non-hydrogen atoms in the unit cell). The strategy to carry out this calculation has also been optimized. The main feature of the sR1 method is that, starting from a single arbitrarily positioned atom, the structure is gradually revealed. With the user's help to delete poorly determined parts of the structure, the sR1 method can build the model to a high final quality. Thus, sR1 is a viable and useful tool for solving crystal structures.text/htmlThe single-atom R1: a new optimization method to solve crystal structurestext3802024-03-18Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of CrystallographyActa Crystallographica Section Aresearch papers237248N-representable one-electron reduced density matrix reconstruction with frozen core electrons
http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?pl5038
Recent advances in quantum crystallography have shown that, beyond conventional charge density refinement, a one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) satisfying N-representability conditions can be reconstructed using jointly experimental X-ray structure factors and directional Compton profiles (DCP) through semidefinite programming. So far, such reconstruction methods for 1-RDM, not constrained to idempotency, have been tested only on a toy model system (CO2). In this work, a new method is assessed on crystalline urea [CO(NH2)2] using static (0 K) and dynamic (50 K) artificial experimental data. An improved model, including symmetry constraints and frozen core-electron contribution, is introduced to better handle the increasing system complexity. Reconstructed 1-RDMs, deformation densities and DCP anisotropy are analysed, and it is demonstrated that the changes in the model significantly improve the reconstruction quality, even when there is insufficient information and data corruption. The robustness of the model and the strategy are thus shown to be well adapted to address the reconstruction problem from actual experimental scattering data.Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of Crystallographyurn:issn:2053-2733Yu, S.Gillet, J.-M.2024-03-21doi:10.1107/S2053273324001645International Union of CrystallographyAn improved method of one-electron reduced density matrix reconstruction from structure factors and directional Compton profiles is tested on a urea crystal. Novel restrictions accounting for molecular symmetry and freezing of core electrons are introduced.ENquantum crystallographyreduced density matrixCompton scatteringX-ray diffractionRecent advances in quantum crystallography have shown that, beyond conventional charge density refinement, a one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) satisfying N-representability conditions can be reconstructed using jointly experimental X-ray structure factors and directional Compton profiles (DCP) through semidefinite programming. So far, such reconstruction methods for 1-RDM, not constrained to idempotency, have been tested only on a toy model system (CO2). In this work, a new method is assessed on crystalline urea [CO(NH2)2] using static (0 K) and dynamic (50 K) artificial experimental data. An improved model, including symmetry constraints and frozen core-electron contribution, is introduced to better handle the increasing system complexity. Reconstructed 1-RDMs, deformation densities and DCP anisotropy are analysed, and it is demonstrated that the changes in the model significantly improve the reconstruction quality, even when there is insufficient information and data corruption. The robustness of the model and the strategy are thus shown to be well adapted to address the reconstruction problem from actual experimental scattering data.text/htmlN-representable one-electron reduced density matrix reconstruction with frozen core electronstext3802024-03-21Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of CrystallographyActa Crystallographica Section Aresearch papers249257Bond topology of chain, ribbon and tube silicates. Part II. Geometrical analysis of infinite 1D arrangements of (TO4)n− tetrahedra
http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?uv5024
In Part I of this series, all topologically possible 1-periodic infinite graphs (chain graphs) representing chains of tetrahedra with up to 6–8 vertices (tetrahedra) per repeat unit were generated. This paper examines possible restraints on embedding these chain graphs into Euclidean space such that they are compatible with the metrics of chains of tetrahedra in observed crystal structures. Chain-silicate minerals with T = Si4+ (plus P5+, V5+, As5+, Al3+, Fe3+, B3+, Be2+, Zn2+ and Mg2+) have a grand nearest-neighbour 〈T–T〉 distance of 3.06±0.15 Å and a minimum T...T separation of 3.71 Å between non-nearest-neighbour tetrahedra, and in order for embedded chain graphs (called unit-distance graphs) to be possible atomic arrangements in crystals, they must conform to these metrics, a process termed equalization. It is shown that equalization of all acyclic chain graphs is possible in 2D and 3D, and that equalization of most cyclic chain graphs is possible in 3D but not necessarily in 2D. All unique ways in which non-isomorphic vertices may be moved are designated modes of geometric modification. If a mode (m) is applied to an equalized unit-distance graph such that a new geometrically distinct unit-distance graph is produced without changing the lengths of any edges, the mode is designated as valid (mv); if a new geometrically distinct unit-distance graph cannot be produced, the mode is invalid (mi). The parameters mv and mi are used to define ranges of rigidity of the unit-distance graphs, and are related to the edge-to-vertex ratio, e/n, of the parent chain graph. The program GraphT–T was developed to embed any chain graph into Euclidean space subject to the metric restraints on T–T and T...T. Embedding a selection of chain graphs with differing e/n ratios shows that the principal reason why many topologically possible chains cannot occur in crystal structures is due to violation of the requirement that T...T > 3.71 Å. Such a restraint becomes increasingly restrictive as e/n increases and indicates why chains with stoichiometry TO<2.5 do not occur in crystal structures.Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of Crystallographyurn:issn:2053-2733Day, M.C.Hawthorne, F.C.Rostami, A.2024-04-29doi:10.1107/S2053273324002432International Union of CrystallographyIt is shown that all possible topologically distinct chain graphs of tetrahedra may be embedded into 3D Euclidean space. In minerals, separations between linked T cations are 3.06 (15) Å and between unlinked T cations are >3.71 Å, and these distances constrain the ability of embedded chain graphs to occur as structural entities in crystals. Software (GraphT-T) allows this embedding to be tested for stereochemical viability.ENbond topology[TO4]n− tetrahedrachains of tetrahedrachain graphgraph embeddingEuclidean spaceIn Part I of this series, all topologically possible 1-periodic infinite graphs (chain graphs) representing chains of tetrahedra with up to 6–8 vertices (tetrahedra) per repeat unit were generated. This paper examines possible restraints on embedding these chain graphs into Euclidean space such that they are compatible with the metrics of chains of tetrahedra in observed crystal structures. Chain-silicate minerals with T = Si4+ (plus P5+, V5+, As5+, Al3+, Fe3+, B3+, Be2+, Zn2+ and Mg2+) have a grand nearest-neighbour 〈T–T〉 distance of 3.06±0.15 Å and a minimum T...T separation of 3.71 Å between non-nearest-neighbour tetrahedra, and in order for embedded chain graphs (called unit-distance graphs) to be possible atomic arrangements in crystals, they must conform to these metrics, a process termed equalization. It is shown that equalization of all acyclic chain graphs is possible in 2D and 3D, and that equalization of most cyclic chain graphs is possible in 3D but not necessarily in 2D. All unique ways in which non-isomorphic vertices may be moved are designated modes of geometric modification. If a mode (m) is applied to an equalized unit-distance graph such that a new geometrically distinct unit-distance graph is produced without changing the lengths of any edges, the mode is designated as valid (mv); if a new geometrically distinct unit-distance graph cannot be produced, the mode is invalid (mi). The parameters mv and mi are used to define ranges of rigidity of the unit-distance graphs, and are related to the edge-to-vertex ratio, e/n, of the parent chain graph. The program GraphT–T was developed to embed any chain graph into Euclidean space subject to the metric restraints on T–T and T...T. Embedding a selection of chain graphs with differing e/n ratios shows that the principal reason why many topologically possible chains cannot occur in crystal structures is due to violation of the requirement that T...T > 3.71 Å. Such a restraint becomes increasingly restrictive as e/n increases and indicates why chains with stoichiometry TO<2.5 do not occur in crystal structures.text/htmlBond topology of chain, ribbon and tube silicates. Part II. Geometrical analysis of infinite 1D arrangements of (TO4)n− tetrahedratext3802024-04-29Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of CrystallographyActa Crystallographica Section Aresearch papers258281GraphT–T (V1.0Beta), a program for embedding and visualizing periodic graphs in 3D Euclidean space
http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?uv5025
Following the work of Day & Hawthorne [Acta Cryst. (2022), A78, 212–233] and Day et al. [Acta Cryst. (2024), A80, 258–281], the program GraphT–T has been developed to embed graphical representations of observed and hypothetical chains of (SiO4)4− tetrahedra into 2D and 3D Euclidean space. During embedding, the distance between linked vertices (T–T distances) and the distance between unlinked vertices (T...T separations) in the resultant unit-distance graph are restrained to the average observed distance between linked Si tetrahedra (3.06±0.15 Å) and the minimum separation between unlinked vertices is restrained to be equal to or greater than the minimum distance between unlinked Si tetrahedra (3.713 Å) in silicate minerals. The notional interactions between vertices are described by a 3D spring-force algorithm in which the attractive forces between linked vertices behave according to Hooke's law and the repulsive forces between unlinked vertices behave according to Coulomb's law. Embedding parameters (i.e. spring coefficient, k, and Coulomb's constant, K) are iteratively refined during embedding to determine if it is possible to embed a given graph to produce a unit-distance graph with T–T distances and T...T separations that are compatible with the observed T–T distances and T...T separations in crystal structures. The resultant unit-distance graphs are denoted as compatible and may form crystal structures if and only if all distances between linked vertices (T–T distances) agree with the average observed distance between linked Si tetrahedra (3.06±0.15 Å) and the minimum separation between unlinked vertices is equal to or greater than the minimum distance between unlinked Si tetrahedra (3.713 Å) in silicate minerals. If the unit-distance graph does not satisfy these conditions, it is considered incompatible and the corresponding chain of tetrahedra is unlikely to form crystal structures. Using GraphT–T, Day et al. [Acta Cryst. (2024), A80, 258–281] have shown that several topological properties of chain graphs influence the flexibility (and rigidity) of the corresponding chains of Si tetrahedra and may explain why particular compatible chain arrangements (and the minerals in which they occur) are more common than others and/or why incompatible chain arrangements do not occur in crystals despite being topologically possible.Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of Crystallographyurn:issn:2053-2733Day, M.C.Rostami, A.Hawthorne, F.C.2024-04-29doi:10.1107/S2053273324002523International Union of CrystallographyThe program GraphT–T (V1.0Beta) has been developed to embed graphical representations of observed and hypothetical chains of (SiO4)4− tetrahedra into 2D and 3D Euclidean space.ENbond topologychains of tetrahedra(SiO4)4− tetrahedragraph embedding program3D Euclidean space3D spring-force algorithmGraphT–TFollowing the work of Day & Hawthorne [Acta Cryst. (2022), A78, 212–233] and Day et al. [Acta Cryst. (2024), A80, 258–281], the program GraphT–T has been developed to embed graphical representations of observed and hypothetical chains of (SiO4)4− tetrahedra into 2D and 3D Euclidean space. During embedding, the distance between linked vertices (T–T distances) and the distance between unlinked vertices (T...T separations) in the resultant unit-distance graph are restrained to the average observed distance between linked Si tetrahedra (3.06±0.15 Å) and the minimum separation between unlinked vertices is restrained to be equal to or greater than the minimum distance between unlinked Si tetrahedra (3.713 Å) in silicate minerals. The notional interactions between vertices are described by a 3D spring-force algorithm in which the attractive forces between linked vertices behave according to Hooke's law and the repulsive forces between unlinked vertices behave according to Coulomb's law. Embedding parameters (i.e. spring coefficient, k, and Coulomb's constant, K) are iteratively refined during embedding to determine if it is possible to embed a given graph to produce a unit-distance graph with T–T distances and T...T separations that are compatible with the observed T–T distances and T...T separations in crystal structures. The resultant unit-distance graphs are denoted as compatible and may form crystal structures if and only if all distances between linked vertices (T–T distances) agree with the average observed distance between linked Si tetrahedra (3.06±0.15 Å) and the minimum separation between unlinked vertices is equal to or greater than the minimum distance between unlinked Si tetrahedra (3.713 Å) in silicate minerals. If the unit-distance graph does not satisfy these conditions, it is considered incompatible and the corresponding chain of tetrahedra is unlikely to form crystal structures. Using GraphT–T, Day et al. [Acta Cryst. (2024), A80, 258–281] have shown that several topological properties of chain graphs influence the flexibility (and rigidity) of the corresponding chains of Si tetrahedra and may explain why particular compatible chain arrangements (and the minerals in which they occur) are more common than others and/or why incompatible chain arrangements do not occur in crystals despite being topologically possible.text/htmlGraphT–T (V1.0Beta), a program for embedding and visualizing periodic graphs in 3D Euclidean spacetext3802024-04-29Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of CrystallographyActa Crystallographica Section Aresearch papers282292Permissible domain walls in monoclinic ferroelectrics. Part II. The case of MC phases
http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?lu5034
Monoclinic ferroelectric phases are prevalent in various functional materials, most notably mixed-ion perovskite oxides. These phases can manifest as regularly ordered long-range crystallographic structures or as macroscopic averages of the self-assembled tetragonal/rhombohedral nanodomains. The structural and physical properties of monoclinic ferroelectric phases play a pivotal role when exploring the interplay between ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity, giant piezoelectricity and multiferroicity in crystals, ceramics and epitaxial thin films. However, the complex nature of this subject presents challenges, particularly in deciphering the microstructures of monoclinic domains. In Paper I [Biran & Gorfman (2024). Acta Cryst. A80, 112–128] the geometrical principles governing the connection of domain microstructures formed by pairing MAB type monoclinic domains were elucidated. Specifically, a catalog was established of `permissible domain walls', where `permissible', as originally introduced by Fousek & Janovec [J. Appl. Phys. (1969), 40, 135–142], denotes a mismatch-free connection between two monoclinic domains along the corresponding domain wall. The present article continues the prior work by elaborating on the formalisms of permissible domain walls to describe domain microstructures formed by pairing the MC type monoclinic domains. Similarly to Paper I, 84 permissible domain walls are presented for MC type domains. Each permissible domain wall is characterized by Miller indices, the transformation matrix between the crystallographic basis vectors of the domains and, crucially, the expected separation of Bragg peaks diffracted from the matched pair of domains. All these parameters are provided in an analytical form for easy and intuitive interpretation of the results. Additionally, 2D illustrations are provided for selected instances of permissible domain walls. The findings can prove valuable for various domain-related calculations, investigations involving X-ray diffraction for domain analysis and the description of domain-related physical properties.Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of Crystallographyurn:issn:2053-2733Biran, I.Gorfman, S.2024-04-29doi:10.1107/S2053273324002419International Union of CrystallographyFollowing the previous work [Biran & Gorfman (2024). Acta Cryst. A80, 112–128], all the possibilities for permissible (mismatch-free) walls between monoclinic domains of pseudocubic ferroelectric perovskites of MC type are analyzed. The study yields analytical expressions for the orientation of such walls, the orientation relationship between the lattice vectors and for the separation between Bragg peaks diffracted from matched domains.ENferroelastic domainsmonoclinic symmetryX-ray diffractionMonoclinic ferroelectric phases are prevalent in various functional materials, most notably mixed-ion perovskite oxides. These phases can manifest as regularly ordered long-range crystallographic structures or as macroscopic averages of the self-assembled tetragonal/rhombohedral nanodomains. The structural and physical properties of monoclinic ferroelectric phases play a pivotal role when exploring the interplay between ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity, giant piezoelectricity and multiferroicity in crystals, ceramics and epitaxial thin films. However, the complex nature of this subject presents challenges, particularly in deciphering the microstructures of monoclinic domains. In Paper I [Biran & Gorfman (2024). Acta Cryst. A80, 112–128] the geometrical principles governing the connection of domain microstructures formed by pairing MAB type monoclinic domains were elucidated. Specifically, a catalog was established of `permissible domain walls', where `permissible', as originally introduced by Fousek & Janovec [J. Appl. Phys. (1969), 40, 135–142], denotes a mismatch-free connection between two monoclinic domains along the corresponding domain wall. The present article continues the prior work by elaborating on the formalisms of permissible domain walls to describe domain microstructures formed by pairing the MC type monoclinic domains. Similarly to Paper I, 84 permissible domain walls are presented for MC type domains. Each permissible domain wall is characterized by Miller indices, the transformation matrix between the crystallographic basis vectors of the domains and, crucially, the expected separation of Bragg peaks diffracted from the matched pair of domains. All these parameters are provided in an analytical form for easy and intuitive interpretation of the results. Additionally, 2D illustrations are provided for selected instances of permissible domain walls. The findings can prove valuable for various domain-related calculations, investigations involving X-ray diffraction for domain analysis and the description of domain-related physical properties.text/htmlPermissible domain walls in monoclinic ferroelectrics. Part II. The case of MC phasestext3802024-04-29Copyright (c) 2024 International Union of CrystallographyActa Crystallographica Section Aresearch papers293304