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Figure 1
Features of the hierarchical structure of bone going from nano- to macroscopic length scales, with a focus on the dense cortical bone. The main constituents of bone on the nanoscale are mineral crystals, thought to occur as plate-shaped particles, and collagen fibrils. Bone contains cells, osteo­cytes, housed in lacunae that are 3–12 µm in dimension. In rodent bone, there is a central band of bone formed by a process called endochondral ossification that contains remnant calcified cartilage (red splotches) and has a different osteo­cyte lacunar density than the surrounding layers of lamellar bone. In humans and some other animals, this is replaced by cylindrical structures called secondary osteons that are formed by Haversian remodelling.

ISSN: 2052-5206
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