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Figure 4
The early tools of crystallography. Top: one of the first three-dimensional electron-density maps, assembled from two-dimensional transparent sections spaced appropriately, used to determine the unknown chemical structure of penicillin by D. Hodgkin and collaborators in the mid-1940s. Bottom: the ubiquitous Beevers–Lipson strips, the tool of choice to calculate Fourier transforms prior to the advent of electronic computers. The image shows the set owned by D. Hodgkin. From the Oxford Museum of Science. (Author's personal collection.)

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ISSN: 2059-7983
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