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Figure 4
Graphical summary of challenges in TrEM. Schematics are analogous to Fig. 1[link](a). (a) The main time delay for on-grid mixing is the time between sample application and vitrification. During this time, especially for long time delays, the air–water interface can interfere with the reaction, for example by competing for binding. (b) For in-flow reactions, the main time delay is the time between mixing and sample application. In this case, the parabolic flow profile during laminar flow results in different residence times for individual molecules and a larger temporal spread.

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ISSN: 2059-7983
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