Download citation
Download citation
link to html
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis, has been carried out at the Zn K edge of the N-terminal part of the integrase protein of the human immunodeficiency virus, type 2 (HIV-2), and of some zinc coordination compounds. In the presence of excess β-mercaptoethanol, which was present in the NMR structure elucidation of the protein [Eijkelenboom et al. (1997), Curr. Biol. 7, 739–746; (2000), J. Biomol. NMR, 18, 119–28], the protein spectrum was nearly identical to that recorded in its absence. Comparison of the XANES of the protein with that of model compounds and literature data permits the conclusion that the Zn ion is four-coordinated. The major shell of the EXAFS provides evidence for a mixed (N or O as well as S) coordination sphere, while the minor shells indicate imidazole coordination. Our approach to the analysis of the EXAFS, including quantification of the imidazole by multiple scattering simulations with EXCURV92, was validated on the model compounds. An important result is that with multiple scattering simulations using restraints on the parameters of the imidazole rings the number of imidazoles and their orientation could be determined. The integrase spectra can be fitted with two sulfur ligands at 2.26 Å (Debye–Waller-type factor 0.009 Å2) and two imidazole ligands with the N atoms at 1.99 Å (Debye–Waller-type factor 0.005 Å2). The XAS-derived geometry is fully consistent with that found in the NMR structure determination and, allowing for the volume contraction due to the temperature difference between the experiments, justifies the restraints applied in the structure calculation (Zn—S and Zn—N distances of 2.3 Å and 2.0 Å, respectively).

Follow J. Synchrotron Rad.
Sign up for e-alerts
Follow J. Synchrotron Rad. on Twitter
Follow us on facebook
Sign up for RSS feeds