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The applicability of electron diffraction tomography to the structure solution and refinement of charged, discharged or cycled metal-ion battery positive electrode (cathode) materials is discussed in detail. As these materials are often only available in very small amounts as powders, the possibility of obtaining single-crystal data using electron diffraction tomography (EDT) provides unique access to crucial information complementary to X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques. Using several examples, the ability of EDT to be used to detect lithium and refine its atomic position and occupancy, to solve the structure of materials ex situ at different states of charge and to obtain in situ data on structural changes occurring upon electrochemical cycling in liquid electrolyte is discussed.

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