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Serial synchrotron crystallography allows low X-ray dose, room-temperature crystal structures of proteins to be determined from a population of microcrystals. Protein production and crystallization is a non-trivial procedure and it is essential to have X-ray-compatible sample environments that keep sample consumption low and the crystals in their native environment. This article presents a fast and optimized manufacturing route to metal–polyimide microfluidic flow-focusing devices which allow for the collection of X-ray diffraction data in flow. The flow-focusing conditions allow for sample consumption to be significantly decreased, while also opening up the possibility of more complex experiments such as rapid mixing for time-resolved serial crystallography. This high-repetition-rate experiment allows for full datasets to be obtained quickly (∼1 h) from crystal slurries in liquid flow. The X-ray compatible microfluidic chips are easily manufacturable, reliable and durable and require sample-flow rates on the order of only 30 µl h−1.

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