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Figure 3
Examples of side chain to side chain and side chain to main chain covalent linkages in proteins (see citations and PDB codes in the main text): (a) Tyr–Tyr covalent link in M. tuberculosis haemoglobin O. (b) Tyr–His covalent link in HPII from E. coli. In both (a) and (b) the new covalent bond increases the rigidity of the haem site. (c) Lys to main chain (C-terminal Gly) link between ubiquitin molecules in the complex of the TAB2 protein with diubiquitin. TAB2 only binds linked ubiquitin molecules; the interaction is not shown, being distant from the link. (d) Covalent link between ubiquitin main chain and the side chain of Ser from the ubiquitin-conjugation enzyme Ubc13. Lys63 of the second ubiquitin is poised to attack the intermediate ester bond. Residues involved in covalent-linkage formation are shown in ball-and-stick representation. The linkages are shown in grey and are indicated by arrows.

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