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Figure 3
The four basis symmetry modes present in a polar distortion of the perovskite structure along z. The 12-dimensional subspace of all possible polar distortions is spanned by this set of basis modes, plus analogous sets along x and y. Note that, while the first three modes involve a single atom per unit cell, the mode [{\varepsilon}_{4}^{z}] involves two atoms per cell, and therefore the normalization condition implies that the atomic displacements in this fourth basis mode are smaller by a factor of 1/21/2.

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