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Figure 2
Origin of Europan surface morphologies I: formation of positive surface relief features on Europa involving potential delivery of subsurface ice–water to the planet's surface [figures after Fagents (2003BB37)]. Top panel: diapirism in a thick ice shell leading to (a) surface up-warping, (b) surface disruption, or (c) surface breaching and viscous flow. Surface up-warping and disruption by a rising diapir could also be accompanied by melting and release of near-surface brines (Head & Pappalardo, 1999BB60). Bottom panel: intrusion of injected ocean water into a thin ice shell leading to (d) surface up-warping, (e) ice-covered effusions or (f) viscous extrusions causing cryolava domes.

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