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Figure 3
The speed difference (cu) between waves and electrons makes microbunching possible. Top: in this situation the longitudinal Lorentz forces caused by the wave B-field BW and to the electron transverse velocity vT push the electrons towards microbunching. Bottom: after the electron travels over one-half undulator period, its transverse velocity is reversed. The wave travels ahead of the electron by one-half wavelength: its B-field is also reversed, the Lorentz force keeps its direction and microbunching continues.

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