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Figure 13
Layout of the experimental station for time-resolved XAS and XMCD in transmission. The left-hand chamber holds the sample and the magnetic field (coils are shaded magenta); the detector is mounted in the right-hand chamber (the blue arrow points on it). The laser pump and the X-ray probe beams both enter the sample chamber through the same flange in a collinear geometry. The laser beam is absorbed by the sample and any stray light is filtered by an Al foil mounted between the two chambers. The APD in the right-hand chamber thus detects only the X-rays transmitted through the sample. In addition, APDs feature a response time fast enough to resolve individual bunches from the storage ring. This is essential for time-gating to only measure photons coming from the laser-sliced electron bunch. Third, the transmission measurement is the most direct way for determining the absorption, which becomes important when performing the XMCD sum rule analysis.

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