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Figure 5
(a) Photograph of the sample (S) mounted on the piezo table (P) in the cryo-stream (C), with an in situ on-axis visible-light microscope (M). (b) View of the sample in the optical microscope (M), used for alignment and inspection during the X-ray exposure. The indicated rectangle (white lines) is scanned in (c). (c) Myelin scattering intensity map (dark-field) for scan field of 100 µm × 100 µm, in units of photon (ph) number per 50 ms acquisition time and detector pixel (region of interest around the lamellar diffraction). The real-space pixel size in (c) is 2 µm, and hence significantly larger than the beam size for this overview image, showing several parallel nerve fibres as deposited on a polyimide foil. At each pixel a complete diffraction pattern is recorded, as exemplified for six pixels in (d), which underline the surprisingly large diversity of local structures. The black square is a shadow of the beamstop. (e) Sketch of a diffraction experiment, illustrating the scattering geometry and a typical myelin diffraction intensity distribution. (f) In some spots, the order is high enough to yield pronounced higher harmonic reflections. Scale bars: (c) 20 µm; (d, f) 1 nm−1.

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