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Figure 3
Diffraction patterns from five methods, including conventional and graphene-wrapped thaumatin crystals with 10% glycerol. (a) Diffraction from a crystal flash-cooled immediately after equilibration in crystal preparation. The faint ice rings (arrows) are due to the small amount of cryoprotectant used in the solvent. (b) Diffraction from a sample coated in oil to prevent dehydration and flash-cooled in liquid nitrogen before imaging. Again, there are faint ice rings due to the solvent's glycerol content. (c) Diffraction from a sample of graphene stretched across a cryoloop without crystals or solvent. The resultant scatter, which includes that from the graphene, is indistinguishable from the background scatter (data not shown). (d) Diffraction from a crystal wrapped in five-layer graphene and then directly flash-cooled in liquid nitrogen before diffraction. Note the absence of the ice rings, indicating that the amount of solution surrounding the crystal is small enough to eliminate the growth of ice crystals. (e) Diffraction from a crystal left at room temperature for 10 min after being wrapped in five-layer graphene, before being flash-cooled and exposed to X-rays. (f) Diffraction from a graphene-wrapped crystal diffracting at room temperature without any cooling.

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