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Individual readers of journals in this service, and non-profit libraries acting for them, are permitted to make `fair use' of the material in it, such as to make a photocopy of an article, or to print a physical copy from an electronic source file of an article for use in teaching or research. Further distribution of content that has been made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License should maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.
Permission is granted to quote short passages or to reprint any figures or tables from journals in this service in scientific works with no further formality than the customary acknowledgement of the source and the following copyright note: "Reproduced with permission of the International Union of Crystallography".
Republication or systematic or multiple reproduction of longer passages from this service is permitted only under licence from the IUCr; in addition, the IUCr may require that permission be obtained from one of the authors. In such cases, enquiries and requests for permission should be addressed to: