Crystal structure and photoluminescent properties of bis(4′-chloro-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridyl)cobalt(II) dichloride tetrahydrate
aDepartment of Chemistry, University College of Science, Tumkur University, Tumkur, Karnataka 572 103, India, bDepartment of Chemistry, Government Science College, Chitradurga, 577501, India, cDepartment of Chemistry, Kuvempu University, P. G. Centre, Kadur-577548, India, and dProf. C. N. R Rao Centre for Advanced Materials Research, Tumkur University, Tumkur-572 103, India
*Correspondence e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In the title hydrated complex, [Co(C15H10ClN3)2]Cl2·4H2O, the complete dication is generated by symmetry. The CoN6 moiety shows distortion from regular octahedral geometry with the trans bond angles of two N—Co—N units being 160.62 (9)°. In the crystal, O—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯O interactions link the components into (001) sheets. The title compound exhibits blue-light emission, as indicated by photoluminescence data, and a HOMO–LUMO energy separation of 2.23 eV was obtained from its diffuse reflectance spectrum.
Keywords: crystal structure; 2,2′,6′,2′′-terpyridine; photoluminescence; SEM; TG–DTA.
1. Chemical context
Since the pioneering work of Tang et al. (1987), there has been increasing interest in chelating organic compounds being employed as charge-transporting materials in electronic devices such as OLEDs. Transition-metal complexes are promising candidates for use as hole-transporting materials as the metal ions can assume variable oxidation states and are found to exhibit low kinetic barriers for self-exchange reactions (Marcus, 1965).
As 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) is reported to show both σ-donor and π-acceptor capabilities, disubstituted 4,4′-, 5,5′- and 6,6′-derivatives of bpy have been widely employed in supramolecular and coordination chemistry (Kaes et al., 2000; Williams et al., 2002). Materials incorporating pyridine have also been shown to perform well in electron-transporting layers in OLEDs because of their high electron mobility (Ichikawa et al., 2010).
Single-layer device structures that make use of RuII complexes involving bipyridine and its derivatives not only show the potential to transport both holes and electrons but also exhibit luminescent properties (Rudmann & Rubner, 2001; Gao & Bard, 2000). Reports of the application of cyclometalated IrIII complexes in vapour-deposited OLEDs both as efficient emissive and charge-transporting materials (Adamovich et al., 2003; Grushin et al., 2001) and the luminescent properties of a distorted octahedral NiII complex with 5,5′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine have been published (Abedi et al., 2015). The synthesis and a study of the thermal and luminescent properties of d8 transition-metal complexes with the incorporation of substituted 2,2′;6′,2′′-terpyridine ligands were described by Momeni et al. (2017).
As an extension of such studies, we now report the synthesis, structure, spectroscopic characterization and thermal behaviour of the title complex, (I).
2. Structural commentary
The [Co(C15H10N3)2Cl2]2+ cation in (I) is symmetric (the metal atom lies on a special position with site symmetry; atoms N2, C8 and Cl1 lie on a crystallographic twofold axis), thus the asymmetric unit contains half of the ligand coordinated to the cobalt ion, one water molecule of crystallization (O atom site symmetry 1) and half of a chloride counter-ion (site symmetry 2) (Fig. 1). The complex shows distortion from an ideal octahedral geometry for the metal ion with two N1—Co1—N1 bond angles being 160.62 (9)°. However, the N2—Co1—N2 bond angle is 180°, as it lies on the rotoinversion axis. The coordinated ligand is almost planar with the r.m.s. deviation of all the non-hydrogen atoms being 0.025 Å. Moreover, the dihedral angle between the ligands is 90.0°, as constrained by the presence of the rotoinversion axis.
3. Supramolecular features
The unit cell of (I) contains four cations, which are electrically balanced by eight chloride ions along with sixteen water molecules of crystallization (Fig. 2). In the crystal structure, two pairs of O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds between water molecules and chloride ions [O2—H2O1⋯Cl2 and O2—H1O1⋯Cl2] link the components into infinite (001) sheets (Table 1).
4. Thermal and photoluminescence studies
Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) on (I) show progressive decomposition in several steps. The first mass loss (obs. 10.0%, calc. 9.8% over the temperature range 60–140°C) is attributed to the loss of the water molecules of crystallization, accompanied by endotherms at 78 and 134°C. The second mass loss over the temperature range 200–310°C accompanied by a DTA peak at 306°C is probably due to the decomposition of one ligand with an estimated mass loss of 36.1% (calcd. mass loss 36.2%). Powder XRD of the final residue after heating to 800°C indicated the presence of cobalt oxy hydroxide, CoO(OH) and Co3O4 (Sulikowska et al., 2000).
The diffuse reflectance (DR) spectrum of (I) was scanned in the wavelength range 200–1100 nm and an absorption band appeared in the visible region as shown in Fig. 3a. A prominent peak with a diffuse reflectance percentage of 5.4 is observed at 640 nm. The Kubelka–Munk function (Harry, 1976) (Fig. 3b) was used in order to determine the HOMO–LUMO gap for (I): the band gap energy obtained from the plot was found to be 2.23 eV (Morales et al., 2007).
The excitation and emission spectra of (I) recorded at room temperature are shown in Fig. 4a and b. The excitation spectrum shows features at 318, 339, 382 and 395 nm. From the emission spectrum, three well-defined peaks at 436, 541 and 653 nm are apparent for (I). The determination of chromaticity co-ordinates [Publication CIE No 15.2 (1986) and 17.4 (1987)] was carried out at an excitation wavelength of 395 nm. The estimated CIE values for the probable excitation are incorporated in the left corner of Fig. 4c. The colour of emission for the highlighted phosphor is indicated in the chromaticity diagram by the solid circle sign (star), which indicates that the emission colour is blue.
5. Database survey
A search of the Cambridge Structural Database gave 90 matches for crystal structures containing the 4′-chloro-2,2′;6′,2′′-terpyridine (L) ligand. Closely related complexes to (I) with a pair of chelating L ligands generating an MN6 coordination sphere include the nickel and iron complexes [Ni(L-κ3N,N′,N′′)2]Cl2·3H2O (CCDC refcode HIVPUY; Huang et al., 2008) and [Fe(L-κ3N,N′,N′′)2]Cl2·4H2O (HIVQEJ; Huang et al., 2008); the latter complex is isostructural with (I). The structure of [Ru(L-κ3N,N′,N′′)2]Cl2·2H2O (PAYMOT; Wang et al., 2012) has also been described. The dihedral angles between the L ligands in HIVPUY, HIVQEJ and PAYMOT are 94.9 (3), 86.1 (3) and 87.0 (3)°, respectively. The crystals of both HIVPUY and HIVQEJ display three-dimensional networks arising from O—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯O interactions. In PAYMOT, the cations, anions and water molecules are linked into a three-dimensional network by C—H⋯Cl, C—H⋯O and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.
6. Synthesis and crystallization
A solution of 4′-chloro-2,2′;6′,2′′-terpyridine (2) (0.535 g, 2.00 mmol) in 3 ml of ethanol was stirred at 333 K for about 30 min and an aqueous solution of cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate (1) (0.2379 g, 1.00 mmol) dissolved in 2 ml of water was added slowly and the resulting solution was refluxed for one h. The brown solution obtained was subjected to slow evaporation at room temperature and was finally triturated with toluene to recover the powdered form of the title complex. The solid product was then kept in a desiccator in order to achieve constant weight (yield 0.584 g; 87.8%).
The product was recrystallized from a mixed methanol–acetonitrile (1:9) solvent system and brown prisms of (I) were obtained. IR (KBr, cm−1): 3039 (CH aromatic), 1595 (C=N aromatic), 1416–1554 (C=C aromatic), 491 and 409 (Co—N symmetric and asymmetric bending, respectively). The broad band centred near 3423 cm−1 can be ascribed to ν(O—H) vibrations.
Simultaneous TG/DTA measurements were carried out using a Perkin–Elmer Diamond TG/DTA analyser. A Perkin–Elmer Lambda-35 UV-visible spectrophotometer and Moriba spectrofluorimeter equipped with a 450 W xenon lamp as an excitation source were used to obtain the diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectra, respectively.
Crystal data, data collection and structure refinement details are summarized in Table 2. The oxygen-bound H atoms were located from difference-Fourier maps and refined as riding: O—H = 0.82 (2) Å. The carbon-bound H atoms were placed in calculated positions (C—H = 0.93 Å) and were included in the refinement in the riding-model approximation, with Uiso(H) set to 1.2Ueq(C).
Crystal structure: contains datablock I. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1107/S205698902000287X/hb7878sup1.cif
Structure factors: contains datablock I. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1107/S205698902000287X/hb7878Isup2.hkl
(a) SEM image (b) EDS spectrum of the complex (3) and elemental composition of the complex (inset table). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1107/S205698902000287X/hb7878sup3.docx
Data collection: APEX2 (Bruker, 2009); cell refinement: SAINT-Plus (Bruker, 2009); data reduction: SAINT-Plus (Bruker, 2009); program(s) used to solve structure: SHELXT2016/4 (Sheldrick, 2015a); program(s) used to refine structure: SHELXL2016/4 (Sheldrick, 2015b); molecular graphics: Mercury (Macrae et al., 2020); software used to prepare material for publication: SHELXL2016/4 (Sheldrick, 2015b).
|Mr = 737.31||Dx = 1.492 Mg m−3|
|Tetragonal, I41/a||Mo Kα radiation, λ = 0.71073 Å|
|Hall symbol: -I 4ad||Cell parameters from 143 reflections|
|a = 9.2846 (7) Å||θ = 2.1–28.4°|
|c = 38.069 (4) Å||µ = 0.89 mm−1|
|V = 3281.7 (6) Å3||T = 296 K|
|Z = 4||Prism, brown|
|F(000) = 1508||0.35 × 0.35 × 0.30 mm|
|Bruker APEXII CCD area |
|2054 independent reflections|
|Radiation source: fine-focus sealed tube||1628 reflections with I > 2σ(I)|
|Graphite monochromator||Rint = 0.031|
|phi and φ scans||θmax = 28.4°, θmin = 2.1°|
|Absorption correction: multi-scan |
(SADABS; Bruker, 2009)
|h = −10→12|
|Tmin = 0.739, Tmax = 0.765||k = −11→12|
|12778 measured reflections||l = −50→50|
|Refinement on F2||Primary atom site location: dual|
|Least-squares matrix: full||Hydrogen site location: mixed|
|R[F2 > 2σ(F2)] = 0.044||H atoms treated by a mixture of independent and constrained refinement|
|wR(F2) = 0.127|| w = 1/[σ2(Fo2) + (0.0659P)2 + 2.6119P] |
where P = (Fo2 + 2Fc2)/3
|S = 1.08||(Δ/σ)max < 0.001|
|2054 reflections||Δρmax = 0.69 e Å−3|
|112 parameters||Δρmin = −0.41 e Å−3|
Geometry. All esds (except the esd in the dihedral angle between two l.s. planes) are estimated using the full covariance matrix. The cell esds are taken into account individually in the estimation of esds in distances, angles and torsion angles; correlations between esds in cell parameters are only used when they are defined by crystal symmetry. An approximate (isotropic) treatment of cell esds is used for estimating esds involving l.s. planes.
|Cl1||0.500000||0.750000||0.45878 (2)||0.0973 (5)|
|Cl2||0.000000||0.250000||0.51848 (4)||0.0902 (4)|
|N2||0.500000||0.750000||0.57542 (6)||0.0327 (5)|
|N1||0.3088 (2)||0.8560 (2)||0.61590 (4)||0.0374 (4)|
|O1||0.1904 (3)||0.5302 (3)||0.52954 (7)||0.0799 (7)|
|C6||0.3905 (2)||0.8121 (2)||0.55799 (5)||0.0368 (4)|
|C5||0.2786 (2)||0.8709 (2)||0.58127 (5)||0.0396 (5)|
|C1||0.2131 (3)||0.9052 (3)||0.63940 (6)||0.0463 (5)|
|C7||0.3886 (3)||0.8165 (3)||0.52162 (5)||0.0488 (6)|
|C8||0.500000||0.750000||0.50418 (8)||0.0516 (9)|
|C2||0.0868 (3)||0.9678 (4)||0.62963 (7)||0.0616 (7)|
|C4||0.1537 (3)||0.9336 (4)||0.56990 (7)||0.0700 (9)|
|C3||0.0559 (3)||0.9828 (5)||0.59462 (7)||0.0816 (11)|
|H2O1||0.142 (3)||0.457 (2)||0.5273 (8)||0.057 (9)*|
|H1O1||0.151 (4)||0.589 (3)||0.5157 (8)||0.085 (13)*|
|Co1||0.0358 (2)||0.0358 (2)||0.0263 (3)||0.000||0.000||0.000|
|Cl1||0.1200 (10)||0.1498 (13)||0.0220 (4)||0.0660 (9)||0.000||0.000|
|Cl2||0.1157 (11)||0.0514 (6)||0.1035 (10)||−0.0010 (6)||0.000||0.000|
|N2||0.0373 (12)||0.0359 (12)||0.0249 (10)||0.0001 (9)||0.000||0.000|
|N1||0.0424 (10)||0.0422 (10)||0.0274 (8)||0.0000 (7)||−0.0015 (7)||0.0003 (7)|
|O1||0.0732 (16)||0.0850 (19)||0.0814 (16)||−0.0034 (14)||0.0074 (13)||−0.0058 (15)|
|C6||0.0405 (11)||0.0418 (11)||0.0282 (9)||0.0017 (8)||−0.0022 (8)||−0.0011 (8)|
|C5||0.0408 (11)||0.0490 (12)||0.0292 (10)||0.0040 (9)||−0.0027 (8)||−0.0004 (8)|
|C1||0.0541 (14)||0.0557 (14)||0.0292 (10)||0.0014 (11)||0.0042 (9)||−0.0005 (9)|
|C7||0.0536 (14)||0.0648 (15)||0.0281 (10)||0.0148 (11)||−0.0063 (9)||−0.0012 (9)|
|C8||0.065 (2)||0.069 (2)||0.0210 (13)||0.0163 (17)||0.000||0.000|
|C2||0.0535 (15)||0.085 (2)||0.0462 (14)||0.0173 (14)||0.0114 (11)||−0.0033 (13)|
|C4||0.0591 (17)||0.116 (3)||0.0346 (12)||0.0347 (17)||−0.0058 (11)||−0.0014 (14)|
|C3||0.0580 (17)||0.135 (3)||0.0519 (16)||0.0430 (19)||−0.0035 (13)||−0.0036 (17)|
|Co1—N2i||1.888 (2)||C6—C7||1.385 (3)|
|Co1—N2||1.888 (2)||C6—C5||1.471 (3)|
|Co1—N1||2.0591 (18)||C5—C4||1.368 (3)|
|Co1—N1i||2.0591 (18)||C1—C2||1.361 (4)|
|Co1—N1iii||2.0591 (18)||C7—C8||1.376 (3)|
|N2—C6||1.344 (2)||C8—C7iii||1.376 (3)|
|N2—C6iii||1.344 (2)||C2—C3||1.370 (4)|
|N1—C5||1.355 (3)||C4—C3||1.385 (4)|
|N2i—Co1—N1||99.69 (5)||C7—C6—C5||125.58 (19)|
|N2—Co1—N1||80.31 (5)||N1—C5—C4||121.8 (2)|
|N2i—Co1—N1i||80.31 (5)||N1—C5—C6||113.71 (18)|
|N2—Co1—N1i||99.69 (5)||C4—C5—C6||124.48 (19)|
|N1—Co1—N1i||91.623 (15)||N1—C1—C2||122.3 (2)|
|N1—Co1—N1ii||91.623 (15)||C8—C7—C6||117.3 (2)|
|N2—Co1—N1iii||80.31 (5)||C7iii—C8—C7||122.3 (3)|
|N1—Co1—N1iii||160.62 (9)||C7iii—C8—Cl1||118.85 (14)|
|N1i—Co1—N1iii||91.623 (16)||C7—C8—Cl1||118.86 (14)|
|N1ii—Co1—N1iii||91.623 (15)||C1—C2—C3||119.3 (2)|
|C6iii—N2—Co1||119.60 (12)||C5—C4—C3||118.7 (2)|
|C5—N1—Co1||113.02 (14)||C2—C3—C4||119.4 (3)|
|N1—Co1—N2—C6||0.56 (12)||N2—C6—C5—N1||2.1 (3)|
|N1i—Co1—N2—C6||−89.44 (12)||C7—C6—C5—N1||−178.2 (2)|
|N1ii—Co1—N2—C6||90.56 (12)||N2—C6—C5—C4||−177.1 (3)|
|N1iii—Co1—N2—C6||−179.44 (12)||C7—C6—C5—C4||2.6 (4)|
|N1—Co1—N2—C6iii||−179.44 (12)||C5—N1—C1—C2||0.7 (4)|
|N1i—Co1—N2—C6iii||90.56 (12)||Co1—N1—C1—C2||−176.8 (2)|
|N1ii—Co1—N2—C6iii||−89.44 (12)||N2—C6—C7—C8||2.5 (3)|
|N1iii—Co1—N2—C6iii||0.56 (12)||C5—C6—C7—C8||−177.14 (19)|
|C6iii—N2—C6—C7||−1.31 (17)||C6—C7—C8—C7iii||−1.23 (15)|
|Co1—N2—C6—C7||178.69 (16)||C6—C7—C8—Cl1||178.78 (15)|
|C6iii—N2—C6—C5||178.4 (2)||N1—C1—C2—C3||−0.7 (5)|
|Co1—N2—C6—C5||−1.6 (2)||N1—C5—C4—C3||−0.1 (5)|
|C1—N1—C5—C4||−0.4 (4)||C6—C5—C4—C3||179.0 (3)|
|Co1—N1—C5—C4||177.5 (2)||C1—C2—C3—C4||0.2 (6)|
|C1—N1—C5—C6||−179.6 (2)||C5—C4—C3—C2||0.1 (6)|
|Symmetry codes: (i) y−1/4, −x+5/4, −z+5/4; (ii) −y+5/4, x+1/4, −z+5/4; (iii) −x+1, −y+3/2, z.|
|Symmetry codes: (iv) −x, −y+1, −z+1; (v) x, y+1/2, −z+1.|
The authors thank Tumkur University administration for their support and encouragement. BT is thankful to the Principal and the staff of Government Science College, Chithradurga-577501.
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