Fixed-target instrumentation in place at (a) beamline I24, Diamond Light Source and (b) beamline BL2 EH3, SACLA. (c) Schematic of fixed target used showing layout of 8 × 8 `city blocks', each comprising 20 × 20 apertures. Shown is a zoomed-in view of a single city block with motion path followed and chip cross-section. (d) Formation of dose-resolved datasets by collecting multiple images at each chip aperture. For XFEL data collection, only a single dose point is recorded at each position.