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Figure 1
The phenomenon of X-ray fluorescence. The X-ray photon interacts with (a) a K-shell (n = 1) or L-shell (n = 2) electron in an atom (b) via the photoelectric effect, ejecting an electron, and the atom can relax either (c) via the Auger effect (top) by ejection of an electron or by X-ray fluorescence (bottom). The lifetime of K holes can be estimated from Auger line-widths and are of the order of femtoseconds (Krause & Oliver, 1979BB22).

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