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Figure 3
(a) Experimental set-up for the measurement of white-beam XAA. Radiation from a hard X-ray wiggler was passed through a set of absorbers in order to produce a broad-band energy spectrum and to shift it towards higher energies. The beam intensity was monitored using a photodiode. XAA was obtained from a two-dimensional dependence of the absorption measured while the sample was rotated relative to the incident-beam direction around two axes. The Nb K X-ray fluorescence, which was used to probe the absorption at atomic sites, was measured using an avalanche photodiode. (b) Calculated energy spectra; number of photons per second per energy interval. Dashed line: energy spectrum of the incident beam. Solid line: effective energy spectrum, which includes absorption dependence inside the sample. Both curves were normalized to their maxima. The vertical line depicts the position of the Nb K absorption edge.

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