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Figure 8
High-speed X-ray images of (a) and (b) the laser AM process for the Al–Si10–Mg plate, and (c) the powder-bed fusion process for Ti–6Al–4V. The frames are cropped such that the details of the vapor depression can be clearly identified as e.g. oscillations in the liquid–vapor surface. The experimental parameters were: (a) laser power 520 W, scan speed 0.8 m s−1, frame rate 1.08 MHz and exposure time 200 ns; (b) laser power 468 W, scan speed 0.6 m s−1, frame rate 10 MHz and exposure time 50 ns; (c) laser power 416 W, scan speed 0.7 m s−1, frame rate 1.08 MHz and exposure time 200 ns. The thickness of the plates was approximately 500 µm. The powder size for panel (c) was 15–45 µm.

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