Possibilities for detector position. The fluorescence can be recorded by (a) an Si PIN diode or (b) a Vortex silicon drift detector. Both can be placed either on the horizontal plane, on one side of the sample (Position 1), or vertically (Position 2). (c), (d) Photographs of the experimental setup corresponding to (c) Position 1 and (d) Position 2. In dispersive XAS geometry, I0 is recorded by an Si PIN diode placed before the sample, vertically close to the beam path (Pascarelli et al., 1999; Nagai et al., 2008).