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Figure 9
The shot-to-shot energy jitter distribution for the electron beam and the SASE FEL. The r.m.s. shot-to-shot fluctuations are 0.012% (electron beam) and 0.025% (SASE FEL), respectively. The dimensionless Pierce parameter [{\rm{\rho }}] for PAL-XFEL with the parameters used in the experiment is calculated to be ∼5 × 10−4.

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