Principle of the operation with a LiF detector. (a) Irradiation of a LiF crystal by ionizing radiation with an energy above 14 eV. (b) Visualization of a CCs distribution into a LiF volume using an optical system with excitation light (e.g. an optical microscope in fluorescent mode) (c) Absorption and emission bands for F2 and F3+ CCs in the LiF crystal. (d) Steps of the readout procedure via confocal fluorescence microscope for determining the dose accumulated in the LiF detector.