The relative effectiveness of each scavenger is largely consistent across X-ray doses. (a) Scavenger titrations at a low dose point (120 Gy) and (b) at the total accumulated dose (792 Gy). Integrated intensities were compared for seven concentrations for ascorbic acid (orange), cysteine (green), and sodium nitrate (blue). Fragmentation reduction (FR) was calculated from the difference between the integrated intensity of the scavenger and the control which was then normalized to the integrated intensity of the control and subtracted from 1.0. In this way, at a particular dose point, an FR of zero represents an amount of fragmentation equal to that of the control and an FR of 1.0 is equal to complete mitigation of fragmentation. The horizontal dashed line represents a fragmentation reduction of 50%. The gray vertical dashed line represents the concentration of protein (95 µM).