March 2006 issue
Starting from the basic photon detection process in semiconductors, the function, principles and properties of sophisticated silicon detectors are discussed.
The PILATUS 1M detector is a hybrid pixel array detector with over one million pixels operating in single photon counting mode. Crystallographic experiments were performed with the detector and a refined electron density map from a biological crystal could be demonstrated.
Fast X-ray detection with silicon avalanche photodiodes is reviewed, including discussion of high-rate behavior, time resolution and pulse-height distributions. Tables comparing different devices and array devices are included, and several devices, including arrays, are discussed in detail, as well as one package system.
Synthetic diamond, as a low-Z semiconductive material, is a very promising material for the fabrication of thin detectors that can be permanently inserted in beamlines for beam metrology applications. Recent developments conducted at CEA-Saclay in Paris are presented.
Cryogenic detectors operated at temperatures below 1 K offer much higher energy resolution than conventional Ge or Si(Li) detectors, and much higher sensitivity than grating spectrometers. This article reviews current cryogenic detector technologies in the context of the synchrotron-based science they enable, with an emphasis placed on superconducting tunnel junctions because of their high count-rate capabilities.
X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution in the micrometer and submicrometer range have been developed at the synchrotron radiation sources for microtomography applications. The detectors consist of a scintillator, a light microscopy optic and a charge-coupled device.
A general methodology for the imaging characterization of X-ray area detectors for synchrotron beamlines is reviewed. It consists of defining a set of measurement tools applicable to most of the area detectors installed on beamlines, and aims at producing homogeneous characterization data regardless of the detector type.
A cryogenically stabilized meV-monochromator mitigates thermally induced deficiencies and demonstrates significantly improved performance over room-temperature designs.
A scanning tunneling microscope for in situ experiments under the irradiation of a highly brilliant hard-X-ray microbeam has been developed. Scanning tunneling microscopy images were successfully obtained at atomic resolution and a modification of the tip-current spectra was obtained for Ge nano-islands on a clean Si(111) surface by changing the incident photon energy across the Ge absorption edge.
A new approach to measuring high-resolution magnetic Compton profiles is proposed and is proved to be workable.