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Figure 1
Experimental setup on the white beam station of the PSICHE beamline at SOLEIL (see also Section S1 of the supporting information). A white beam spectrum is produced from an in-vacuum wiggler (source) and different sets of low-energy absorbers (filters). A vertically focusing mirror (VFM) focuses the beam in the vertical direction which is furthermore collimated on the sample horizontally and vertically using two pairs of slits. The sample is placed in the UToPEc (Ultrafast Tomography Paris Edinburgh Cell) and mounted on a set of three translation stages allowing its movement in the three Cartesian coordinates, and on a rotation axis for X-ray computed tomography. The upper illustration and corresponding photograph represent the three setups that can be used quasi simultaneously in the scope of this article: (i) Fast X-ray tomography and imaging where the pink X-ray beam attenuated by the sample is converted to visible light by a scintillator and transmitted to the CCD camera using different sets of optics. (ii) Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction is achieved through acquisition of scattered photons by the energy-dispersive Ge detector, mounted on a rotation axis and focused on the sample using two pairs of slits, making it possible for combined angle- and energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (CAESAR: combined angle and energy-dispersive structural analysis and refinement). The pathway of the X-ray beam is dashed. (iii) The X-ray absorption method is achieved via the insertion of a pellet of dried fine powder of MgO downstream of the sample, and the displacement of the collimation slits of the Ge detector to acquire the X-ray diffraction pattern of MgO. The XRD pattern of MgO, represented in the insert, shows an energy-selective profile acting as a polychromator.

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