May 2022 issue
Two approaches to the design of a diamond sensor signal path were explored using high-intensity X-ray pulses from the LINAC Coherent Light Source at SLAC. Results on the charge-collection efficiency and signal collection time are presented over a range of approximately four orders of magnitude in the generated electron–hole plasma density.
This is a study of the phase changes detected in monoolein samples under constant flow using a high-viscousity injector. The sample behaviour was studied using X-ray techniques while light microscopy and modelling studies were used to help interpret some of the effects observed in the data.
Two new methods of computer simulation of synchrotron radiation nanofocusing with planar compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are presented. The methods are based on the results of analytical theory. A new feature is the possibility to take into account the PCRL aperture. A universal computer program was elaborated and specific results were obtained.
A laser interferometer has been developed to read and fix magnet misalignments in an undulator.
A novel approach to the remote-control system for the compact multi-crystal energy-dispersive spectrometer for X-ray emission spectroscopy applications is described.
Facing the challenges of X-ray diffraction from tiny samples subjected to multimegabar pressures, instrumentation developments are presented that enable, among other studies, single-crystal data collection from micrometer- to sub-micrometer-sized grains. The developments are based on a sub-micrometer beam capability employing compound refractive lenses operating with a phase correcting plate and a precise motorization solution.
Mamba is a Bluesky-based experiment-control framework being developed for the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS); its frontend and backend collaborate through a remote-procedure-call service and, most importantly, command injection. Improvement of Bluesky's support for high-frequency and high-throughput applications is in progress, with Mamba Data Worker as a key component. Other plans, including an experiment parameter generator and Mamba GUI Studio, have also been discussed.
A beam monitoring system with pin-hole optics has been developed at an undulator beamline front-end in SPring-8. Energy-resolved beam images were successfully observed and were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.
Nuclear resonance time domain interferometry (NR-TDI) is used to study the slow dynamics of liquids at atomic and molecular length scales. Here the TDI method of using a stationary two-line magnetized 57Fe foil as a source and a stationary single-line stainless steel foil analyzer is employed.
A simple, flexible packaging system for EPICS modules and related software is implemented at the High Energy Photon Source (People's Republic of China), which also produces reusable modular `input/output controller' (IOC) executables that can be composed to replace many multi-device IOC applications. A configuration convention is suggested that helps to implement easily maintainable multi-IOC setups. Also introduced is our ongoing project of comprehensive beamline services to further simplify configuration management.
It is shown how cladding of mechanocomposites with SiO2 film affects the course of high-temperature synthesis in Ti–Al systems.
A method of X-ray reflectivity data reconstruction from scattering measurements on spherically curved surfaces is proposed and tested on solid and liquid surfaces.
Analyzing X-ray scattering data with the Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method.
Debye–Scherrer patterns, obtained from X-ray diffraction experiments using synchrotron light in transmission geometry, were analysed to construct generalized pole figures. Generalized orientation distribution functions of cold-rolled and then annealed interstitial-free steel were obtained to investigate microstructure developments in this material.
A new fabrication technique for spherical crystal analyzers using a microporous aluminium base is introduced. It eliminates the need for permanent bonding of the crystal to the substrate, avoiding long-term degradation of the permanent bond and making the base and crystal reusable. Using this fabrication method, diced Si(844) and Ge(337) analyzers have been characterized with high-resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a technique which is particularly sensitive to analyzer imperfections.
A set of electron time-of-flight spectrometers for high-resolution angle-resolved spectroscopy has been developed for the Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument at the SASE3 soft X-ray branch of the European XFEL.
XANES and X-ray fluorescence combined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used to quantify and identify heavy metals concentrations as well as the chemical speciation of Pb and Ni, which have considerable public health impacts in Egypt.
Multiscale structural and mechanical characterization of stomatopod cuticle under in situ spherical projectile penetrating loadings. In this work the full dynamic crack evolutionary process and other toughening mechanisms inside the dactyl club under high-speed impact were uncovered.
An X-ray analyzer-based optics with a zoom function is proposed for observing various samples with apparent-absorption contrast, phase contrast and scattering contrast. Proof-of-principle experiments were performed and tri-modal contrast cross-sectional images of a sample were obtained at 1× and 10× magnification.
This work presents and extends the single-exposure phase imaging capabilities of X-ray grating interferometry as demonstrated by an implementation at beamline I13-1 of the Diamond Light Source. The results are especially relevant for future single-pulse imaging experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers.
This work presents the implementation of combined high-resolution X-ray in-line holography and X-ray fluorescence microscopy within the same experimental setup at a hard X-ray nanofocusing beamline. In-line holography provides morphological information by recovering electron density maps, even on weakly scattering or low-contrast samples; X-ray fluorescence provides complementary chemical information by producing element-specific mass density maps.
A new instrument for real-time reconstruction of three arbitrary slices of raw tomographic projection data streaming from a 2D detector is presented. The instrument allows for quick 3D zooming to regions of interest defined by the intersection of the reconstructed slices, data capturing to HDF5 files whenever required, and changing of all data collection parameters during the streaming.
Streaks and Poissonian noise in tomography data are attenuated using a new two-stage multiscale volumetric filtering framework where the degradations are modeled as correlated noise. The procedure is fully automatic, offers improved feature preservation, and can be further combined with regularized reconstructions to deliver state-of-the-art imaging quality.
This work evaluates the impact of experimental conditions on image quality when performing synchrotron X-ray in-line phase contrast nano-tomography on mineralized biomaterials. For this purpose, a computational procedure to investigate signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution is proposed.
The feasibility of density measurements at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature is demonstrated using the X-ray absorption method. This technique has been integrated with other existing techniques available at the white beam station of PSICHÉ.
A spectrometer using diamond microcrystals is proposed and demonstrated to diagnose the spectral properties of X-ray free-electron laser pulses.
Experimental data are used to extract additional information on external stresses and surface dislocations through the perpendicular component of the atomic displacement gradient retrieved with Bragg coherent diffractive imaging.
This work demonstrates the effects of clamping force on the optical surface of a monochromator silicon crystal through the use of finite-element analysis.
The design and the basic performances of the diffraction endstation of the NanoMAX beamline of MAX IV Laboratory in Lund are presented. Designed to perform scanning diffraction, the endstation is adapted to single-particle imaging as well as scanning fluorescence microscopy, tomography, and 2D and 3D ptychography in forward and Bragg geometries, using high-flux nanofocused (coherent) X-ray beams in the energy range between 5 and 28 keV.
A water-cooled magnetic coupling attenuator design is presented.
We report the first SSX experiments with viscous jets conducted at ALBA beamline BL13-XALOC. We confirm that the current capabilities at BL13-XALOC enable atomic resolution determination of protein structures from microcrystals using viscous jets at room temperature.
Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in the XUV-regime with few meV bandwidth has been implemented at the dedicated low-energy beamline UE112-PGM1 at BESSY II.
The versatile and user-friendly image processing toolkit tofu, optimized for 3D reconstruction of parallel beam, cone beam, tomography and laminography data, is presented.
addenda and errata
Corrections to Table 2 of Nanao et al. [J. Synchrotron Rad. (2022). 29, 581–590] are reported.
A figure in the article by Huyke et al. [(2021), J. Synchrotron Rad. 28, 1100–1113] is corrected.