research papers
Effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals
^{a}University of Fire Prevention and Fighting, 243 Khuat Duy Tien, Hanoi 120602, Vietnam
^{*}Correspondence email: tongsytien@yahoo.com
The temperature and wavenumber dependence of the extended Xray absorption finestructure (EXAFS) oscillation of hexagonal closepacked (h.c.p.) crystals have been calculated and analyzed under the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a. The anharmonic oscillation is presented in terms of the Debye–Waller factor using the cumulant expansion approach up to the fourth order. An effective calculation model is expanded and developed from the manybody perturbation approach and correlated Debye model using the anharmonic effective potential. This potential, depending on the nonideal axial ratio c/a, is obtained from the firstshell nearneighbor contribution approach. A suitable analysis procedure is performed by evaluating the influence of cumulants on the phase shift and amplitude reduction of the anharmonic oscillation. The numerical results for crystalline zinc are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from experiments and other theoretical methods at various temperatures. The obtained results show that the present theoretical model is essential and effective in improving the accuracy for analyzing the experimental data of anharmonic signals of h.c.p. crystals with a nonideal axial ratio c/a.
Keywords: EXAFS oscillation; h.c.p. crystals; nonideal axial ratio; Debye–Waller factor; anharmonic correlated Debye model.
1. Introduction
Extended Xray absorption finestructure (EXAFS) signals can be used to define the structural parameters and dynamic properties of many materials (Lytle et al., 1975; Beni & Platzman, 1976; Greegor & Lytle, 1979), so it has developed into a powerful technique and is the method of choice in many investigations in materials science (Yokoyama et al., 1996; Yokoyama, 1998; Lytle, 1999). However, thermal disorders in a cause anharmonicity that results in additional terms in the oscillation (Eisenberger & Brown, 1979; Lee et al., 1981; Tranquada & Ingalls, 1983), leading to nonnegligible errors if these terms are ignored in structural parameters (Hung & Rehr, 1997; Rehr & Albers, 2000). Usually, the anharmonic corrections lead to revisions of the Gaussian distribution form of the Debye–Waller (DW) factor. This DW factor can be viewed as a result of averaging the singlescattering formula over many nearneighbor pairs with a given radial pair distribution (RD) function (Tröger et al., 1994; Rehr & Albers, 2000). The expanded DW factor is also described in detail using the moments of the RD function (or cumulants) in the ratio method (cumulant expansion approach) (Bunker, 1983; Crozier et al., 1988). This method consists of the separate analysis of phase and amplitude of the signal at each temperature, taking a lowtemperature spectrum as reference (Bunker, 1983; Dalba et al., 1993). It is particularly suited to studying temperaturedependent variations of the firstshell parameters since it is mainly independent of theoretical inputs and allows a direct estimation of the quality of experimental data (Abd El All et al., 2013; Fornasini et al., 2001; Fornasini & Grisenti, 2015). Usually, for disorders that are not too large, the ratio method can reproduce the asymmetric bond length distribution in the first coordination shell for many different materials (Sanson, 2010; Fornasini et al., 2017; Vila et al., 2018). And the first four cumulants can suffice to reproduce the complex bondlength distribution and have been confirmed for both crystalline and amorphous materials (Yokoyama et al., 1996, Yokoyama, 1998; Dalba et al., 1995, 1999; Fornasini & Grisenti, 2015, Fornasini et al., 2017).
In many cases, the DW approximation is inadequate in disordered systems (Dalba & Fornasini, 1997), and standard treatment of such vibrational and must often rely on a simpler model and phenomenological approximations (Dalba et al., 1998;Rehr & Albers, 2000). In these typical approaches, an anharmonic correlated Einstein (ACE) model (Hung & Rehr, 1997) is completed based on the correlated Einstein (CE) model (Sevillano et al., 1979) using the anharmonic effective (AE) potential. This AE potential (Hung & Rehr, 1997) has taken into account the anharmonic effects and is based on the firstshell nearneighbor contribution (FSNNC) approach (Duc et al., 2018a). The ACE model can be performed based on the quantum statistical theory (Frenkel & Rehr, 1993) (hereafter called the QACE model) (Hung & Rehr, 1997) or the classical statistical theory (Stern et al., 1991) (hereafter called the CACE model) (Hung et al., 2014), which is successfully applied to investigate the anharmonic cumulants of many various crystals (Hung & Fornasini, 2007; Hung et al., 2008, 2014, 2017a,b, 2019; Tien et al., 2019; Duc, 2020; Tien, 2020a, 2021a). The QACE model has recently been developed based on the ACE model and the firstorder perturbation by Tien (2020b). This QACE model has been successfully used to analyze the anharmonic amplitude and phase of facecentered cubic crystals in a suitable procedure. Still, it has not yet been used to review the wavenumber dependence of the anharmonic oscillation in detail. Moreover, the ACE models (QACE and CACE models) describe the atomic vibrations by the phonons having a unique correlated Einstein frequency, so they cannot mimic the acoustic phonon branches presenting in lattice crystals (Grimvall, 1999; Grosso & Parravicini, 2000). Also, an anharmonic correlated Debye (ACD) model was completed based on the correlated Debye (CD) model (Beni & Platzman, 1976) using the AE potential (Hung & Rehr, 1997) and manybody perturbation (MBP) approach (Mahan, 1990) by Hung et al. (2010). This model can effectively treat the acoustic phonons branches present in lattice crystals because it describes the atomic vibrations by the phonons propagating with the speed of sound and having frequencies varying from 0 to the correlated Debye frequency. It was effectively used to investigate the anharmonic spectra of bodycentered cubic (b.c.c.) crystals (Hung et al., 2016) and facecentered cubic (f.c.c.) crystals (Duc et al., 2017, 2018b). Still, the ACD model has not yet been used for analyzing the anharmonic oscillation and optimized for the expressions of cumulants, especially in the lowtemperature limit.
In recent years, many metals of hexagonal closepacked (h.c.p.) structure have been widely used to make advanced materials in science and technology, such as beryllium (Be), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), magnesium (Mg), ruthenium (Ru), zinc (Zn), zirconium (Zr), titanium (Ti) and yttrium (Y) crystals (Vérité et al., 2007; Connétable et al., 2011; Podolskaya & Krivtsov, 2012; Ghorai, 2018). These h.c.p. crystals have lower symmetry and isotropy than other cubic crystals such as f.c.c. crystals, b.c.c. crystals and diamond (DIA) crystals (Vérité et al., 2007; Podolskaya & Krivtsov, 2012). The anharmonic cumulants of h.c.p. crystals have also been obtained using the CACE model, QACE model (for the first three cumulants) and experimental data by Hung et al. (2008, 2014, 2017b). However, the previous works only calculate approximately for h.c.p. crystals using an ideal axial ratio c/a ≃ (8/3)^{1/2} (Hung et al., 2008, 2014, 2017b). This means that the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the anharmonic oscillation has not been taken into account in the previous calculations. Therefore, the calculation and analysis of the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals using an extended ACD model and a suitable procedure will be a necessary addition to data analysis in the technique.
The purpose of the present work is to expand and develop an effective model in calculating and analyzing the temperature and wavenumber dependence of the anharmonic c/a. The primary objective is to demonstrate that the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a is significant and necessary to be considered in the anharmonic oscillation analysis of h.c.p. crystals. In this work, the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a has been taken into account in the AE potential that depends on the structure parameters of h.c.p. crystals and obtained from the FSNNC approach, in which the Morse potential characterizes the interaction between a pair of atoms. An effective calculationmodel is perfected based on the extended ACD model to calculate the anharmonic cumulant. The anharmonic oscillation is presented in terms of the DW factor using the cumulant expansion approach up to the fourthorder. A suitable analysis procedure is performed by evaluating the influence of cumulants on the phase shift and amplitude reduction to analyze the temperature and wavenumber dependence of the anharmonic oscillation. Our numerical results for Zn are compared with those obtained from the ACE models and experiments (Hung et al., 2008, 2014, 2017b) at various temperatures. From these obtained results, we discuss the meaning and role of cumulants in analyzing the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals under the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a, especially for highorder cumulants (third and fourth cumulants).
oscillation of h.c.p. crystals under the effect of the nonideal axial ratioThis article is organized as follows. The basic formulae of the anharmonic . Section 3 calculates the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the AE potential and the first four anharmonic cumulants of h.c.p. crystals using the extended ACD model. The numerical results in analyzing the anharmonic oscillation for Zn are compared and discussed with experiments and other theoretical methods in Section 4. Section 5 gives the main conclusions about the present investigation.
oscillation and the calculation model are presented in Section 22. Basic formulae of the anharmonic EXADS oscillation
The Kedge oscillation includes nonGaussian disorder for a polycrystalline material and is described within the framework of the single scattering and planewave approximations by (Tranquada & Ingalls, 1983; Crozier et al., 1988; Tien, 2020b)
where k is the photoelectron wavenumber, S_{0}^{ 2}(k) is an amplitude reduction factor due to the manybody effect, F(k) is the atomic backscattering amplitude, N is the the angular bracket 〈…〉 is the average value in considering variations in bond lengths both due to thermal effects as well as static distortions, δ(k) is the net phase shift, λ(k) is the electron effective and r is the instantaneous bond length between backscattering and absorbing atoms and depends on the temperature T.
The influence of temperature on the Kedge oscillation of Zn is represented in Fig. 1. It can be seen that the thermal vibrations significantly influence the amplitude reduction and phase shift of the anharmonic oscillation, as well as the decrease of the peak heights and their shifts to the left as the temperature T increases, especially at higher temperatures.
Following the approach proposed by Freund et al. (1989), we expand the angular brackets in equation (1) in a Taylor series about R = 〈r〉 to secondorder and rewrite the thermal averages in terms of anharmonic cumulants using the cumulant expansion approach (Bunker, 1983; Crozier et al., 1988). Approximating to the fourth cumulant for small and moderate disorders and neglecting the smallterm yields from the in the obtained expression, the Kedge oscillation in the form χ(k, T) = is written as
where the coefficients σ^{(n)}(T) are nthorder cumulants and can be presented in terms of the power moments of the true RD function ρ(T, r) (Fujikawa & Miyanaga, 1993; Tröger et al., 1994), and r_{0} is the between the backscattering and absorbing atoms (Tranquada & Ingalls, 1983; Yokoyama et al., 1989, 1996).
It can be seen that the amplitude A(k, T) and phase Φ(k, T) of the anharmonic oscillation depend on both the temperature T and wavenumber k. From equation (2), the logarithm of the amplitude ratio M(k, T_{1}, T_{2}) = ln[A(k,T_{2})/A(k,T_{1})] and the linear phase difference ΔΦ(k, T_{1}, T_{2}) = Φ(k, T_{2}) − Φ(k, T_{1}) between temperatures T_{2} and T_{1} can be inferred in the form
where the quantities S_{0}^{ 2}(k), F(k), λ(k) and δ(k) in equation (2) are assumed to be the same at temperatures T_{1} and T_{2} (Tranquada & Ingalls, 1983; Sanson, 2010; Fornasini et al., 2017), the contribution of the term + ln[R(T_{2})/R(T_{1})]} is considered negligible in equation (3) (Dalba et al., 1993; Tröger et al., 1994; Tien, 2020b), and the approximate expression 1/R(T) ≃ 1/r_{0} is used in equation (4) (Crozier et al., 1988; Rehr & Albers, 2000; Tien, 2020b).
Thus, the cumulants are critical for the quantitative treatment of the anharmonic and (4). This means that the correct calculation of anharmonic cumulants using a suitable model is essential to define the material structure accurately.
oscillation. The oddorder cumulants contribute primarily to the phase shift, and the evenorder cumulants contribute to the amplitude reduction, as seen in equations (3)3. Calculation of the anharmonic cumulants using the extended ACD model
This section calculates the first four anharmonic c/a using the extended ACD model, where the AE potential depends on the structural parameter of h.c.p. crystals obtained from the FSNNC approach.
cumulants of h.c.p. crystals under the effect of the nonideal axial ratio3.1. AE potential within FSNNC approach
In order to specify thermodynamic parameters of a material structure, it is necessary to determine the interatomic interaction potential and local et al., 1996; Hung & Rehr, 1997). Let us consider an AE potential expanded up to the fourthorder around its minimum position as a function of the displacement of interatomic distance from equilibrium (Hung et al., 2008, 2014, 2017a; Tien et al., 2019). If ignoring the constant term, the AE potential is written as
(Yokoyamawhere x is the displacement, k_{0} is the effective force constant, k_{3} and k_{4} are describing the anharmonicity and bias in the RD function, and these local are assumed to be temperature independent.
In relative vibrations of the backscattering and absorbing atoms, the AE potential (Hung & Rehr, 1997) in the center of mass frame of the single bond pair of these atoms is given by
where μ = m_{1}m_{2}/(m_{1} + m_{2}) is the of an atomic pair, m_{i} is the mass of the ith atom, sum i is over absorber (i = 1) and backscatterer (i = 2), sum j is over their nearestneighbor atoms, is the unit vector along with bond between the ith and jth atoms, and is the direction unit vector linking absorber and backscatterer.
In the model of h.c.p. a and c, as seen in Fig. 2. The ratio of the caxis to aaxis is written as e = c/a, where a is the basal plane edge length and c is the height. This ratio characterizes the degree of asymmetry and anisotropy of the For monatomic crystals, all atoms are similar with mass m_{i} = m, so the values of parameters e_{1}, e_{2}, ɛ_{1} and ɛ_{2} are calculated as e_{1} = e_{2} = e and ɛ_{1} = ɛ_{2} = 1/2.
each atom in the first shell is bonded to 12 other surrounding atoms, and the conventional is usually described by two lattice constantsConsidering the backscattering and absorbing atoms and their nearestneighbor atoms to calculate the AE potential of this , we obtain the result as
from equation (6)The Morse potential (Morse, 1929; Girifalco & Weizer, 1959) is often applied validly to determine the pair interaction potential of cubic metals, and it can be expressed in expanding around its minimum (position x = 0) up to the fourthorder in the form as
where α describes the width of the pair interaction potential, and D is the dissociation energy.
Using the Morse potential equation (8) to calculate the AE potential of h.c.p. crystals from equation (7) and if the overall constant in the result is ignored, the obtained result is
The local k_{0}, k_{3} and k_{4} of h.c.p. crystals are deduced from comparing equation (5) with equation (9) as follows,
Note that the contribution of the h.c.p. c/a to the AE potential in equation (9) and the local in equation (10) are obtained from the FSNNC approach (Duc et al., 2018a). In this approach, the influence of nearest surrounding atoms on the thermal vibrations of backscattering and absorbing atoms is determined by the projection of their pair interaction along the bonding direction (Negele & Orland, 1972). Moreover, the calculated expressions of the AE potential and local of the h.c.p. crystals are similar to that of the f.c.c. crystal if the h.c.p. crystals have an ideal axial ratio c/a = (8/3)^{1/2}.
with nonideal axial ratioThus, the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on thermodynamic parameters of h.c.p. crystals is described via the dependence of the AE potential and local on the structural parameter e, as seen in equations (9) and (10). The present calculation model took into account threedimensional interactions, even though it only uses a simple approach with the onedimensional model.
3.2. Correlated Debye frequency and temperature
The ACD model is derived from the dualism of an ) using the AE potential (Hung & Rehr, 1997) and MBP approach (Mahan, 1990). In this model, the atomic vibrations can be quantized and treated as phonons, and the anharmonicity is the result of the phonon–phonon interactions (Beni & Platzman, 1976; Feynman, 1998). Therefore, the atomic vibrations of the can be described as a system consisting of many phonons, each of which corresponds to a wave that has frequency ω(q) with wavenumber q varying in the first (Kittel, 2004; Hung et al., 2010; Duc et al., 2018a, Tien, 2021b),
in quantum theory and is perfected based on the CD model (Beni & Platzman, 1976where q is the phonon wavenumber, a is the lattice constant in onedimensional systems, and the effective force constant k_{0} is given by equation (10).
The wavenumber dependence of the frequency of h.c.p. crystals is represented in Fig. 3. It can be shown that the frequency is maximum at the bounds of the first of the linear chain with the values of the wavenumber as q = ±π/a (Hung et al., 2016). Hence, the correlated Debye frequency ω_{D} and temperature θ_{D} are derived from equation (20) as follows,
where ω_{D} can be treated using the formula ω_{D} = cq_{D} , kB is the and is the reduced Planck constant.
Thus, the thermal vibrations of atoms are described by N phonons that propagate with the sound speed c and the frequencies varying from 0 to the correlated Debye temperature frequency ω_{D} in the having volume V. The effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the correlated Debye temperature θ_{D} and frequency ω_{D} of h.c.p. crystals can be described via the structural parameter e, as seen in equation (12).
3.3. Anharmonic cumulants within the extended ACD model
The Hamiltonian includes the anharmonic effects of a system written as a summation of the harmonic and anharmonic components (Yokoyama et al., 1996; Feynman, 1998; Hung et al., 2010),
where
is the harmonic Hamiltonian term and H_{a} = −k_{3}x^{3} + k_{4}x^{4} is the anharmonic Hamiltonian term.
In the ACD model, the displacement x of the nth atom is related to the displacement operator A_{q} of phonons and can be expressed via the displacement u_{n} of a onedimensional chain (Horner, 1974; Miyanaga & Fujikawa, 1994; Hung et al., 2016; Duc et al., 2018a, Tien, 2021b),
where the function f(q) and displacement operator A_{q} are defined with the following properties,
Then the moments 〈x^{k}〉 can be calculated with the aid of the MBP approach (Mahan, 1990) and are given by
where the function S(β) is written via the anharmonic Hamiltonian in an interactive representation as
Following the approach proposed by Hung et al. (2010, 2016), using the Wick theorem for the Tproduct in the integral for the harmonic phonon Green function and properties of the phonon displacement operator A_{q}, we calculate the moments 〈x^{k}〉 according to the procedures depicted in equations (13)– (17). After using the local k_{0}, k_{3} and k_{4} of h.c.p. crystals given from equation (10) and converting from variable q to variable p by the formula
we calculate the temperature dependence of the first four
cumulants and obtain the following results.The first cumulant describes the net et al., 1988; Tröger et al., 1994) in the form
(NTE) or the lattice disorder (CrozierThe second cumulant describes the parallel meansquare relative displacement (MSRD) σ^{2} that relates to the projected vibrational (VDOS) ρ(ω) (Crozier et al., 1988; Tröger et al., 1994) in the form
The third cumulant is the mean cubic relative displacement (MCRD) and describes the asymmetry of the RD function (Crozier et al., 1988; Dalba et al., 1995, 1998) in the form
The fourth cumulant characterizes the anharmonic contribution to the et al., 1988; Dalba et al., 1995, 1998, 1999) in the form
amplitude and describes the flatness of the RD function from a harmonic Gaussian shape (Crozierwhere the frequency ω(p) is given from equation (11), and the function Z(p) is identified as Z(p) = with p = qa/2.
To calculate the anharmonic –(22) based on the ACD model, we use the approximations Z(p) ≈ 1 + βℏω(p) in the HT limit (T → ∞), 1/Z^{n}(p) ≈ 0 with n > 1 in the LT limit (T → 0), and 1/Z^{n}(p) ≈ 0 with n > 0 at the ZP (T = 0).
cumulants in the hightemperature (HT) and lowtemperature (LT) limits and at the (ZP) from equations (19)The obtained expressions using the present ACD model in the LT and HT limits and at the ZP of the first four c/a are given in Fig. 4. These expressions describe the anharmonicity contribution of thermal vibrations to the oscillation in the HT limit and the influence of quantum effects on the oscillation in the LT limit. Also, they describe the contribution of zeropoint energy to the oscillation at the ZP. In the case of h.c.p. crystals with ideal axial ratio c/a = (8/3)^{1/2}, our obtained expressions of the first four cumulants in the HT limit are = , = , = and = . It can be seen that the first three cumulants σ^{(1)}, σ^{(2)} and σ^{(3)} are similar to those calculated from the obtained expressions of the QACE (Hung et al., 2008, 2017b) and CACE (Hung et al., 2014) models, and the fourth cumulant σ^{(4)} is slightly smaller than the result = obtained from the CACE model (Hung et al., 2014). Our obtained expressions of the first four cumulants at the ZP are ≃ , ≃ , ≃ , and ≃ . It can be seen that the first three cumulants σ^{(1)}, σ^{(2)} and σ^{(3)} are smaller than the results σ^{(1)} ≃ 3ℏ/4(10Dm)^{1/2}, ≃ and ≃ , respectively, calculated from the obtained expressions of the QACE model (Hung et al., 2008, 2017b). Meanwhile, the first four cumulants σ^{(1)}, σ^{(2)}, σ^{(3)} and σ^{(4)} obtained from the CACE model (Hung et al., 2014) progress gradually to zero because this model cannot calculate quantum effects. The small difference between the present ACD and QACE (Hung et al., 2008, 2017b) models in the obtained results is because the present ACD model took into account the dispersion relation of thermal vibrations, while the QACE model (Hung et al., 2008, 2017b) only uses an effective frequency to describe these thermal vibrations.
cumulants of h.c.p. crystals taking into account the effect of nonideal axial ratioNote that the present ACD model has taken into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the oscillation of h.c.p. crystals. In contrast, the ACE models (Hung et al., 2008, 2014, 2017b) do not consider this effect because they only use an approximation of the ideal axial ratio c/a ≈ (8/3)^{1/2}. Moreover, as can be seen in equations (19)–(22), using the present ACD model with converting variable p = qa/2 to calculate the anharmonic cumulants, we have obtained expressions independent of the lattice constant a in onedimensional systems. Also, we have calculated expressions of the first four cumulants at the ZP in explicit forms and optimized expressions of the third and fourth cumulants in the LT limit, as seen in Fig. 4. Meanwhile, other ACD models in the previous works (Hung et al., 2010, 2016; Duc et al., 2017, 2018b) have not yet performed calculations for these expressions.
Thus, a calculation model of the anharmonic c/a on the first four anharmonic cumulants is described via their dependence on the structural parameter e. The obtained temperaturedependent expressions using the present EACD model of the first four cumulants can satisfy all their fundamental properties. These expressions have described both the influences of anharmonic effects at high temperatures on the classical limit and that of the quantum effects at low temperatures on the zeropoint energy.
cumulants of h.c.p. crystals has been perfected based on the extended ACD model (hereafter cited as the EACD model). The effect of the nonideal axial ratio4. Numerical results and discussions
In order to discuss the effectiveness and development of the present theoretical model for calculating and analyzing the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the temperature and wavenumber dependence of the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals in this work, we use the formulae in Section 2 and the obtained expressions in Section 3 to calculate numerical results for Zn. Firstly, we use the physical parameters of Zn to calculate the local the correlated Debye temperature and frequency, and the first four cumulants in the temperature range from 0 K to 700 K. Then, we analyze the anharmonic oscillation via the phase differences and the logarithm of amplitude ratios in the temperature range from 100 K to 700 K with reference values at 100 K and in the wavenumber range from 0 Å^{−1} to 20 Å^{−1}. Our results are obtained using the EACD model in both cases with and without considering the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a. These results are compared with each other as well as with the corresponding results obtained from the QACE and CACE models by Hung et al. (2008, 2014, 2017b). Moreover, our numerical results are also compared with experimental data measured at the Hamburg Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (HASYLAB), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY) (Hamburg, Germany) and beamline 8 (BL8), Synchrotron Light (SLRI) (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand) by Hung et al. (2014, 2017b). In these comparisons, the obtained results using the ACE models (Hung et al., 2008, 2014, 2017b) are in the temperature range from 0 K to 700 K, the measured values at HASYLAB (Hung et al., 2014) are at 77 K and 300 K, and the measured values at SLRI (Hung et al., 2017b) are at 300 K, 400 K, 500 K and 600 K. Herein, the error values of measurements at SLRI have been determined from reanalysis of original data provided by Hung et al., and they have also not been published in previous articles. Lastly, we evaluate the advancement of the present theoretical model in calculating and analyzing the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals under the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a.
In calculations of Zn, we use the m = 65.3771 (Marinenko & Foley, 1975), lattice constants a = 2.6594 Å, c = 4.9368 Å and e = 1.8563 (Jette & Foote, 1935), and Morse potential parameters D = 0.1698 eV, α = 1.7054 Å^{−1} and r_{0} = 2.7931 Å (Hung et al., 2008). Using the EACD model and taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a = 1.8563 to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of Zn from equations (10) and (12), we obtain the local k_{0} = 2.3887 eV Å^{−2}, k_{3} = 1.0528 eV Å^{−3} and k_{4} = 0.9871 eV Å^{−4}, and the correlated Debye frequency ω_{D} = 3.7552 × 10^{13} Hz and temperature θ_{D} = 286.8415 K. It can be seen that our obtained results have a clear difference in comparison with the corresponding results obtained from ACE models with approximating the ideal axial ratio c/a ≃ (8/3)^{1/2} (Hung et al., 2008, 2014). Moreover, in comparison with experimental values (Hung et al., 2008, 2014), our obtained results also agree better than those obtained from these ACE models. This means that the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a should still be taken into account in the calculations of the thermodynamic parameters of h.c.p. crystals, especially when the deviation of the axial ratio c/a compared with (8/3)^{1/2} is large.
The temperature dependences of the (a) first cumulant σ^{(1)}(T), (b) second cumulant σ^{2}(T), (c) third cumulant σ^{(3)}(T) and (d) fourth cumulant σ^{(4)}(T) of Zn are shown in Fig. 5. Our obtained results using the EACD model are calculated by equations (19)–(22) in both cases with and without taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a. The results taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the anharmonic oscillation are calculated using the value e = 1.8563. Meanwhile, the obtained results without considering this effect are approximately calculated using the value e ≃ (8/3)^{1/2} as the ideal axial ratio c/a. As can be seen in Fig. 5, our results agree well with those obtained from the CACE model within the LT range and experiment (Hung et al., 2014), and the QACE model and another experiment (Hung et al., 2017b) for the first three cumulants, in which the ACE models (Hung et al., 2014, 2017b) do not consider the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a. Also, in comparison with experimental values (Hung et al., 2017b), the obtained results using the EACD model taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a agree better than those obtained from other models, as seen in Fig. 5.
The values of the first four , in which our results are calculated using the EACD model with nonideal and ideal axial ratios c/a. The suitable agreement of our values in comparison with those obtained from the CACE model (Hung et al., 2014) within the LT range, the QACE model (Hung et al., 2017b) and experiments (Hung et al., 2014, 2017b) can be clearly seen. Still, there is a significant difference between the obtained values with the nonideal axial ratio c/a and those obtained with the ideal axial ratio c/a. The effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a clearly increases the values of loworder cumulants (first and second cumulants) and significantly increases the value of highorder cumulants, especially at high temperatures. Moreover, the obtained values with the nonideal axial ratio c/a are a better agreement with experimental values (Hung et al., 2014, 2017b) than those obtained with the ideal axial ratio c/a, especially compared with experimental values obtained by Hung et al. (2017b), as seen in Table 1.
cumulants of Zn at 0 K, 77 K, 300 K, 400 K, 500 K, 600 K and 700 K are given in Table 1
‡Calculation with the ideal axial ratio c/a in this work. §Hung et al. (2017b). ¶Hung et al. (2014). 
Herein, there is a limitation in comparing the experimental values measured at HASYLAB and SLRI by Hung et al., as seen in Fig. 5 and Table 1. The measured values at HASYLAB (Hung et al., 2014) were published without error values, and we also have not received the original data from Hung et al. in order to redefine these values. Meanwhile, the error values of measurements at SLRI (Hung et al., 2017b) have been determined from reanalysis of the original data provided by Hung et al., but these error values are quite large at 500 K and 600 K, especially for the third cumulant (uncertainties are about 21% and 19%). The characterization of the magnitude of these errors can also be found in some experimental results for other materials (Stern et al., 1991; Dalba et al., 1993, 1999; Yokoyama, 1998; Fornasini & Grisenti, 2015).
Comparisons with the above experimental values can influence the evaluated results on the suitability of results obtained from different methods if their difference is not great enough, as in this study. However, for evaluating the behavior of theoretical calculation models, comparisons based mainly on the average values of the experiment can still obtain the necessary scientific values (Yokoyama et al., 1989; Dalba et al., 1990; Strauch et al., 1996; Hung & Rehr, 1997; Hung & Fornasini, 2007; Beccara & Fornasini, 2008; Fornasini et al., 2017). This is because the average value characterizes the probability of obtaining results close to this value for the plurality of the measurements taken (Xia et al., 2000; Lira & Wöger, 2001).
Therefore, the obtained evaluations for the present calculation model in comparison with other methods are valid, although there are still certain limitations in using the above experimental values in this work.
The wavenumber dependence of (a) the logarithm of amplitude ratios M(k,T) = ln[A(k,T)/A(k,100 K)] and (b) the phase differences ΔΦ(k, T) = Φ(k, T) − Φ(k, 100 K) of Zn at T = 300 K and T = 500 K are shown in Fig. 6. Our obtained results using the EACD model are calculated using equations (3) and (4) in both cases with and without taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a, in which the anharmonic cumulants are given by equations (19)–(22). The effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the anharmonic oscillation is described by comparing the results obtained with the nonideal axial ratio c/a with those obtained with the ideal axial ratio c/a. The comparison results show that the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the logarithm of amplitude ratio and the phase difference is significant at high temperatures and large wavenumbers, especially for the phase difference, as seen in Fig. 6.
The values of the logarithm of the amplitude ratios M(k, T) and the phase differences ΔΦ(k, T) of Zn are given in Table 2. Our results are calculated using the EACD model with nonideal and ideal axial ratios c/a at T = 300 K and 500 K with k = 10 Å^{−1} and 20 Å^{−1}. It can be clearly seen that the values of M(k, T) and ΔΦ(k, T) decrease with increasing temperature T and decrease rapidly with increasing wavenumber k. Also, the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a significantly increases the value of M(k, T) and clearly reduces the value of ΔΦ(k, T) with increasing temperature T and wavenumber k. However, the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the values of M(k, T) is smaller and changes faster than this effect on the values of ΔΦ(k, T), as seen in Table 2.

Thus, the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a is significant and is necessarily taken into account in analyzing the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals, especially at high temperatures and large wavenumbers. This effect is stronger and the deviation of the ratio c/a compared with (8/3)^{1/2} is larger, which also increases the logarithm of the amplitude ratio and reduces the phase difference of the anharmonic oscillation. This means that the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a clearly reduces the amplitude reduction and significantly increases the phase shift, especially with the axial ratio c/a being much different from (8/3)^{1/2}.
The temperature and wavenumber dependence of (a) the logarithm of the amplitude ratio M(k, T) and (b) the phase difference ΔΦ(k, T) with their component terms of Zn are shown in Fig. 7. These surfaces are presented to visually describe the role and variation with increasing temperature and wavenumber of the components containing the cumulants that contribute to the amplitude reduction and phase shift of the anharmonic oscillation. Our results are obtained using the EACD model taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a. Herein, M_{1}(k, T) and M_{2}(k, T) are denoted as contributions to M(k, T) of terms containing the second and fourth cumulants in equation (3), respectively. Likewise, ΔΦ_{1}(k, T), ΔΦ_{2}(k, T) and ΔΦ_{3}(k, T) are denoted as contributions to ΔΦ(k, T) of terms containing the first, second and third cumulants in equation (4), respectively. As can be seen in Fig. 7(a), both M_{1}(k, T) and M_{2}(k, T) contribute primarily to the result of M(k, T), in which the variation with temperature and wavenumber of M_{2}(k, T) is faster than that of M_{1}(k, T). Still, M_{1}(k, T) reduces the value of M(k, T), and M_{2}(k, T) increases the value of M(k, T). Also, the contribution of ΔΦ_{3}(k, T) to the result of ΔΦ(k, T) is the largest even though the contributions of ΔΦ_{1}(k, T) and ΔΦ_{2}(k, T) to the result of ΔΦ(k, T) are significant. This is because the contribution of ΔΦ_{1}(k, T) to the value of ΔΦ(k, T) is an opposite sign and not much larger than that of ΔΦ_{2}(k, T) to the value of ΔΦ(k, T), as seen in Fig. 7(b).
Thus, the contribution of M_{1}(k, T) to the value of M(k, T) and the contributions of ΔΦ_{1}(k, T), ΔΦ_{2}(k, T) and ΔΦ_{3}(k, T) to the value of ΔΦ(k, T) of Zn (h.c.p. crystal) are similar to the corresponding contributions of Mo (b.c.c. crystal) (Tien, 2020a), Cu and Ni (f.c.c. crystal) (Tien, 2020b, Tien, 2021a) and Ge (diamond crystal) (Tien, 2021b). However, the contribution of M_{2}(k, T) to the value of M(k, T) of Zn (h.c.p. crystal) is significantly stronger than this corresponding contribution of Mo (b.c.c. crystal) (Tien, 2020a), Cu and Ni (f.c.c. crystal) (Tien, 2020b, 2021a), and Ge (diamond crystal) (Tien, 2021b).
The values of the logarithm of the amplitude ratios M(k, T) and the phase differences ΔΦ(k, T), and their component terms of Zn are given in Table 3. Our results are calculated using the EACD model with nonideal axial ratio c/a at T = 200 K, 400 K and 600 K with k = 10 Å^{−1} and 20 Å^{−1}. It can be clearly seen that the ratio M_{2}(k,T)/M_{1}(k,T) is negative, and its absolute value increases sharply to a sizable one with fastincreasing temperature T and increasing wavenumber k, in which M_{1}(k, T) has the same sign as M(k, T) and M_{2}(k, T) has the opposite sign as M(k, T). Meanwhile, the absolute values of the ratios and gradually decrease to approximately the same value with fastincreasing temperature T and increasing wavenumber k, in which the ratio is negative and the ratio is positive. This results in the value of the ratio gradually progressing to 100% with fastincreasing temperature T and increasing wavenumber k, as seen in Table 3.

Thus, the term M_{2}(k, T) increases the value and contributes significantly to calculating the logarithm of the amplitude ratio M(k, T), and the term ΔΦ_{3}(k, T) reduces the value and contributes mainly to calculating the phase difference ΔΦ(k, T). The influences of M_{2}(k, T) on M(k, T) and ΔΦ_{3}(k, T) on ΔΦ(k, T) are stronger at the higher temperatures and larger wavenumbers. The influence caused by the wavenumber is stronger than that caused by the temperature. This means that the fourth cumulant has a strong influence on the amplitude reduction, and the third cumulant has the greatest influence on the phase shift, especially at high temperatures and large wavenumbers. This result is essential and useful to analyze the anharmonic oscillation from experimental data.
Currently, using the FEFFIT program suite and other theoretical fitting standards in the experimental data analysis technique is being performed and developed in many laboratories worldwide using properly established processes (Vila et al., 2018; Kas et al., 2020; Ravel & Newville, 2020). In these processes, a nonlinear best fit to the experimental data by a suitable theoretical code is capable of extracting reliable information of the structural parameters and dynamic properties of materials (Newville, 2001; Bunker, 2010). For spectra, single scattering is dominant because the main contribution to the anharmonic oscillation is given by the first shell (Rennert & Hung, 1988; Stern et al., 1991). This is why, in theoretical fitting standards, only the Kedge oscillation of the first shell is used to analyze measurement results of the experimental signals (Bunker, 2010; Ravel & Newville, 2020).
The IFEFFIT program suite (Newville, 2001; Newville & Ravel, 2020) has many outstanding features and is designed to fit experimental data to theoretical calculations from the well known FEFF code (Rehr et al., 1991; Kas et al., 2020) that yields atomic scattering amplitudes and phase shifts used in many fitting models, as well as various other properties (Zabinsky et al., 1995; Ankudinov et al., 1998). This program suite enables extracting data from experimental data, Fourier transforms, Fourier filter and fitting the data to reference data from experiment or theory (Bunker, 2010). The fitting can be done in k or R space, with a wide range of options given for modeling data (Jorissen & Rehr, 2013). This includes a full suite of tools and methods for analysis, including functions for preedge removal and normalization of data, background removal using the Autobk method, and fitting oscillation with theoretical calculations for scattering amplitudes and phase shifts (Newville & Ravel, 2020).
Usually, the scattering path formalism and cumulant expansion from the FEFF code are used as the basic building blocks of data analysis to give a flexible and robust parameterization of most problems (Newville, 2001), in which these theoretical scattering factors and anharmonic cumulants are provided to refine the fitting model and the extracted information from experimental data of Ravel & Newville (2005). However, the reliability of the obtained results depends on the accuracy of the theoretical calculations and physical approximations implemented in the FEFF code (Fornasini & Grisenti, 2015).
The wavenumber dependence of the Kedge oscillation k^{2}χ(k) of Zn at 300 K is shown in Fig. 8. Our obtained results using the EACD model taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a is derived from modifying equation (2) in the FEFF code for the anharmonic cumulants given by equations (19)–(22). It can be seen that our results agree with those obtained from the QACE model and experiment (Hung et al., 2017b) and another experiment (Hung et al., 2008), in which the QACE model does not consider the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a and the fourth cumulant. Also, in comparison with experimental signals (Hung et al., 2008, 2017b), the obtained results using the EACD model taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a agree better than those obtained from the QACE models, especially for the large wavenumber range and in comparison with experimental signals obtained by Hung et al. (2017b), as seen in the peak heights and their shifts of the anharmonic signals obtained from experiments and other theoretical models in Fig. 8. This is because the fourth cumulant increases the amplitude, as seen in equation (2), and the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a tends to reduce the amplitude reduction and increase the phase differences of the anharmonic oscillation, as seen from the evaluation results in Fig. 6 and Table 2. The obtained results also show that the ratio method is able to reproduce the Kedge signal in the first coordination shell of Zn using the IFEFFIT program suite.
Therefore, ignoring the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the anharmonic oscillation will lead to nonnegligible errors in the obtained results from the analysis procedures using the FEFF code. The calculated expressions of the first four cumulants, the logarithm of amplitude ratios, and the phase differences taking into account the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a are a necessary addition to modifying the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals in the FEFF code. The obtained results using the present theoretical model for the temperature and wavenumber dependence of the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals can be effectively used to complete and modify the calculation toolkit of the FEFF code. These additions can improve the accuracy of the anharmonic data analysis of h.c.p. crystals under the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a in the data fitting models using the IFEFFIT program suite.
Here, in the h.c.p. structure of Zn, the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a causes a distorted structure. As a result, the first coordination shell is split into two subshells, each one composed of six atoms. In this distorted structure, Zn–Zn distances for the six bonds in the (aa) plane are 2.6594 Å, and Zn–Zn distances for the other six bonds distorted along with the direction of the caxis are 2.9069 Å (the distortion between these bond distances is less than 10%).
The appropriate approaches must be based on these characteristics to treat the distorted structure of Zn in investigations on the anharmonic
spectra. In the usual approach, the cumulant expansion can describe deviations from a distorted Gaussian distribution of the RD function by taking into account contributions on both of the Zn–Zn paths corresponding to the above two bond distances.In this work, we used another approach in the present theoretical model to treat the distorted structure of Zn. This approach considers and calculates an effective path of Zn–Zn in the cumulant expansion to describe deviations from a distorted Gaussian distribution of the RD function using the AE potential model that takes into account the contribution of both Zn–Zn distances for the bonds in the distorted structure of Zn. The obtained results of Zn in this work have also presented the suitability of the present approach in investigating the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on anharmonic of h.c.p. crystals. This approach has also been used by Dalba et al. (1995) to effectively treat the local disorder in amorphous germanium with various bond distances using an effective pair potential in the cumulant expansion.
Thus, the above analysis has shown the effective applicability of cumulant expansion with a suitable approach to describing c/a in the h.c.p. structure.
oscillations of distorted materials such as Zn with the nonideal axial ratio5. Conclusions
In this work, we have extended and developed an effective model to calculate and analyze the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a on the temperature and wavenumber dependence of the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals. The thermal vibrations of the are described as a system consisting of many phonons, each of which corresponds to a wave that has a frequency ω(q) with a wavenumber q varying in the first The AE potential of h.c.p. crystals depending on the nonideal axial ratio c/a is obtained from the FSNNC approach that can describe the contribution of the nearestneighbor atoms to the pair interaction potential of backscattering and absorbing atoms. The EACD model has been perfected based on the extended ACD model to calculate the temperature dependence of the anharmonic cumulant effectively.
The obtained temperaturedependent expressions using the EACD model of the first four c/a have indicated that this effect increases the logarithm of the amplitude ratio and reduces the phase difference of the anharmonic oscillation. The magnitude of this effect is significant and is necessarily taken into account in analyzing the anharmonic oscillation of h.c.p. crystals, especially with the axial ratio c/a being much different from (8/3)^{1/2}. The analytical results of the influence of the cumulants on the anharmonic oscillation have also indicated the role of highorder cumulants. The third cumulant plays a crucial role in the phase shift calculation, and the fourth cumulant plays an important role in the amplitude reduction calculation. These obtained results are essential and effective in analyzing the experimental data of anharmonic signals.
cumulants of h.c.p. crystals can satisfy all their fundamental properties. These expressions can describe both the influences of the quantum effects at low temperatures on the zeropoint energy and that of the anharmonic effects at high temperatures on the classical limit. The analytical results of the effect of the nonideal axial ratioThe numerical results for Zn obtained using the present theoretical model are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from experiments and other theoretical methods at various temperatures. This agreement shows the efficiency of the present theoretical model in analyzing the wavenumber and temperature dependence of c/a. It can improve the accuracy of the anharmonic data analysis of h.c.p. crystals under the effect of the nonideal axial ratio c/a based on addition and modification for the calculation toolkit of the FEFF code in the data fitting models using the IFEFFIT program suite. The present theoretical model can also be applied to treat other distorted crystals that have low symmetry and isotropy with multiple acoustic phonons.
oscillation of h.c.p. crystals under the effect of the nonideal axial ratioAcknowledgements
The author would like to acknowledge two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions. The author is thankful to Professor Nguyen Van Hung (VNU Hanoi, Vietnam) and Dr Cu Sy Thang (Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam) for providing original
data of crystalline zinc. The author would also like to thank Professor Fernando Vila and Professor John Tranquada (University of Washington, USA), Professor Paolo Fornasini (University of Trento, Italy), Professor Andrea Sanson (University of Padova, Italy), Professor Takafumi Miyanaga (Hirosaki University, Japan) and Dr Götz Schuck (HelmholtzZentrum Berlin, Germany) for their helpful discussions and comments on the applicability of cumulant expansion approach for crystalline zinc.References
Abd el All, N., Thiodjio Sendja, B., Grisenti, R., Rocca, F., Diop, D., Mathon, O., Pascarelli, S. & Fornasini, P. (2013). J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 603–613. Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals Google Scholar
Ankudinov, A. L., Ravel, B., Rehr, J. J. & Conradson, S. D. (1998). Phys. Rev. B, 58, 7565–7576. Web of Science CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Beccara, S. A. & Fornasini, P. (2008). Phys. Rev. B, 77, 172304. CrossRef Google Scholar
Beni, G. & Platzman, P. M. (1976). Phys. Rev. B, 14, 1514–1518. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Bunker, G. (1983). Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 207, 437–444. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Bunker, G. (2010). Introduction to A Practical Guide to Xray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy. Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Connétable, D., Huez, J., Andrieu, É. & Mijoule, C. (2011). J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 23, 405401. PubMed Google Scholar
Crozier, E. D., Rehr, J. J. & Ingalls, R. (1988). Xray Absorption: Principles, Applications, Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS & XANES, 1st ed., ch. 9, edited by D. C. Koningsberger & R. Prins. New York: WileyInterscience. Google Scholar
Dalba, G. & Fornasini, P. (1997). J. Synchrotron Rad. 4, 243–255. CrossRef CAS Web of Science IUCr Journals Google Scholar
Dalba, G., Fornasini, P., Grazioli, M. & Rocca, F. (1995). Phys. Rev. B, 52, 11034–11043. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Dalba, G., Fornasini, P., Grisenti, R., Pasqualini, D., Diop, D. & Monti, F. (1998). Phys. Rev. B, 58, 4793–4802. Web of Science CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Dalba, G., Fornasini, P., Grisenti, R. & Purans, J. (1999). J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 253–254. Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals Google Scholar
Dalba, G., Fornasini, P. & Rocca, F. (1993). Phys. Rev. B, 47, 8502–8514. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Dalba, G., Fornasini, P., Rocca, F. & Mobilio, F. (1990). Phys. Rev. B, 41, 9668–9675. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Duc, N. B. (2020). Phys. Scr. 95, 075706. CrossRef Google Scholar
Duc, N. B., Hung, N. V., Khoa, H. D., Vuong, D. Q. & Tien, T. S. (2018a). Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2018, 3263170. Google Scholar
Duc, N. B., Tho, V. Q., Tien, T. S., Khoa, D. Q. & Hieu, H. K. (2018b). Radiat. Phys. Chem. 149, 61–64. CrossRef Google Scholar
Duc, N. B., Tho, V. Q., Van Hung, N., Khoa, D. Q. & Hieu, H. K. (2017). Vacuum, 145, 272–277. CrossRef Google Scholar
Eisenberger, P. & Brown, G. S. (1979). Solid State Commun. 29, 481–484. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Feynman, R. P. (1998). Statistical Mechanics: A Set of Lectures, 1st ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Google Scholar
Fornasini, P. & Grisenti, R. (2015). J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 1242–1257. Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals Google Scholar
Fornasini, P., Grisenti, R., Dapiaggi, M., Agostini, G. & Miyanaga, T. (2017). J. Chem. Phys. 147, 044503. CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Fornasini, P., Monti, F. & Sanson, A. (2001). J. Synchrotron Rad. 8, 1214–1220. Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals Google Scholar
Frenkel, A. I. & Rehr, J. J. (1993). Phys. Rev. B, 48, 585–588. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Freund, J., Ingalls, R. & Crozier, E. D. (1989). Phys. Rev. B, 39, 12537–12547. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Fujikawa, T. & Miyanaga, T. (1993). J. Phys. Soc. Jpn, 62, 4108–4122. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Ghorai, A. (2018). Acta Phys. Pol. A, 134, 549–556. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Girifalco, L. A. & Weizer, V. G. (1959). Phys. Rev. 114, 687–690. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Greegor, R. B. & Lytle, F. W. (1979). Phys. Rev. B, 20, 4902–4907. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Grimvall, G. (1999). Thermophysical Properties of Materials, 1st ed. Amsterdam: NorthHolland. Google Scholar
Grosso, G. & Parravicini, G. P. (2000). Solid State Phys. 1st ed., p. 35. London: Academic Press. Google Scholar
Horner, H. (1974). Dynamical Properties of Solids, Vol. 1, ch. 8, edited by G. K. Horton & A. A. Maradudin. Amsterdam: NorthHolland. Google Scholar
Hung, N. V., Bao Trung, N. & Kirchner, B. (2010). Physica B, 405, 2519–2525. CrossRef Google Scholar
Hung, N. V., Duc, N. B., Vuong, D. Q., Toan, N. C. & Tien, T. S. (2019). Vacuum, 169, 108872. Google Scholar
Hung, N. V., Thang, C. S., Duc, N. B., Vuong, D. Q. & Tien, T. S. (2017a). Eur. Phys. J. B, 90, 256. CrossRef Google Scholar
Hung, N. V., Thang, C. S., Duc, N. B., Vuong, D. Q. & Tien, T. S. (2017b). Physica B, 521, 198–203. Google Scholar
Hung, N. V., Tien, T. S., Duc, N. B. & Vuong, D. Q. (2014). Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 28, 1450174. CrossRef Google Scholar
Hung, N. V., Tien, T. S., Hung, L. H. & Frahm, R. R. (2008). Int. J. Mod. Phys. B, 22, 5155–5166. Web of Science CrossRef Google Scholar
Jette, E. R. & Foote, F. (1935). J. Chem. Phys. 3, 605–616. CrossRef ICSD CAS Google Scholar
Jorissen, K. & Rehr, J. J. (2013). J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 430, 012001. CrossRef Google Scholar
Kas, J. J., Vila, F. D. & Rehr, J. J. (2020). International Tables for Crystallogrphy, Volume I, https://doi:10.1107/S1574870720003274. Google Scholar
Kittel, C. (2004). Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th ed. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
Lee, P. A., Citrin, P. H., Eisenberger, P. & Kincaid, B. M. (1981). Rev. Mod. Phys. 53, 769–806. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Lira, I. & Wöger, W. (2001). Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1172–1179. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Lytle, F. W. (1999). J. Synchrotron Rad. 6, 123–134. Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals Google Scholar
Lytle, F. W., Sayers, D. E. & Stern, E. A. (1975). Phys. Rev. B, 11, 4825–4835. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Mahan, G. D. (1990). ManyParticle Physics, 2nd ed. New York: Plenum. Google Scholar
Marinenko, G. & Foley, R. T. (1975). J. Res. Natl. Bur. Standards A, 79A, 747–759. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Miyanaga, T. & Fujikawa, T. (1994). J. Phys. Soc. Jpn, 63, 1036–1052. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Morse, P. M. (1929). Phys. Rev. 34, 57–64. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Negele, J. & Orland, H. (1972). Quantum ManyBody Systems. New York: Perseus Books. Google Scholar
Newville, M. (2001). J. Synchrotron Rad. 8, 96–100. Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals Google Scholar
Newville, M. & Ravel, B. (2020). International Tables for Crystallogrphy, Volume I, https:// doi: 10.1107/S1574870720003407. Google Scholar
Podolskaya, E. A. & Krivtsov, A. M. (2012). Phys. Solid State, 54, 1408–1416. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Ravel, B. & Newville, M. (2005). J. Synchrotron Rad. 12, 537–541. Web of Science CrossRef CAS IUCr Journals Google Scholar
Ravel, B. & Newville, M. (2020). International Tables for Crystallogrphy, Volume I, https://doi.org/10.1107/S1574870720003353. Google Scholar
Rehr, J. J. & Albers, R. C. (2000). Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 621–654. Web of Science CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Rehr, J. J., Mustre de Leon, J., Zabinsky, S. I. & Albers, R. C. (1991). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 5135–5140. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Rennert, P. & van Hung, N. (1988). Phys. Status Solidi B, 148, 49–61. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Sanson, A. (2010). Phys. Rev. B, 81, 012304. Web of Science CrossRef Google Scholar
Sevillano, E., Meuth, H. & Rehr, J. J. (1979). Phys. Rev. B, 20, 4908–4911. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Stern, E. A., Līvņš, P. & Zhang, Z. (1991). Phys. Rev. B, 43, 8850–8860. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Strauch, D., Pavone, P., Nerb, N., Karch, K., Windl, W., Dalba, G. & Fornasini, P. (1996). Physica B, 219–220, 436–438. CrossRef Google Scholar
Tien, T. S. (2020a). J. Theor. Appl. Phys. 14, 295–305. CrossRef Google Scholar
Tien, T. S. (2020b). J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 53, 315303. CrossRef Google Scholar
Tien, T. S. (2021a). Radiat. Phys. Chem. 186, 109504. CrossRef Google Scholar
Tien, T. S. (2021b). Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 136, 539. CrossRef Google Scholar
Tien, T. S., Van Hung, N., Tuan, N. T., Van Nam, N., An, N. Q., Minh Thuy, N. T., Kim Lien, V. T. & Van Nghia, N. (2019). J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 134, 307–312. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Tranquada, J. M. & Ingalls, R. (1983). Phys. Rev. B, 28, 3520–3528. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Tröger, L., Yokoyama, T., Arvanitis, D., Lederer, T., Tischer, M. & Baberschke, K. (1994). Phys. Rev. B, 49, 888–903. CrossRef Web of Science Google Scholar
Van Hung, N. & Fornasini, P. (2007). J. Phys. Soc. Jpn, 76, 084601. Web of Science CrossRef Google Scholar
Van Hung, N., Hue, T. T., Khoa, H. D. & Vuong, D. Q. (2016). Physica B, 503, 174–178. CrossRef Google Scholar
Van Hung, N. & Rehr, J. J. (1997). Phys. Rev. B, 56, 43–46. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Vérité, G., Willaime, F. & Fu, C. C. (2007). Solid State Phenom. 129, 75–81. Google Scholar
Vila, F. D., Spencer, J. W., Kas, J. J., Rehr, J. J. & Bridges, F. (2018). Front. Chem. 6, 356. CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Xia, X., Wang, Z. & Gao, Y. (2000). Meas. Technol. 11, 430–435. CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Yokoyama, T. (1998). Phys. Rev. B, 57, 3423–3432. Web of Science CrossRef CAS Google Scholar
Yokoyama, T., Kobayashi, K., Ohta, T. & Ugawa, A. (1996). Phys. Rev. B, 53, 6111–6122. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Yokoyama, T., Satsukawa, T. & Ohta, T. (1989). Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1905–1908. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
Zabinsky, S. I., Rehr, J. J., Ankudinov, A., Albers, R. C. & Eller, M. J. (1995). Phys. Rev. B, 52, 2995–3009. CrossRef CAS Web of Science Google Scholar
This article is published by the International Union of Crystallography. Prior permission is not required to reproduce short quotations, tables and figures from this article, provided the original authors and source are cited. For more information, click here.