The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) recognizes the valid concerns of authors, readers, librarians and others regarding the need for long-term preservation and access to scholarly research as publishing moves into the online era. Our policy addresses this question of archiving (viz, long term preservation and access) directly and honestly.
In addition to affirming our position regarding archiving, the policy we have developed responds to library concerns about the print era concept of 'subscription' meaning ownership being replaced in the online era by the meaning access for a defined period of time. The policy recognizes the impractical challenge to a publisher to retain records of who subscribed to which volumes of a journal for all time, and permits libraries to acquire their own electronic collection of page images of IUCr journals.
The original draft of this policy was developed by the IUCr Committee on Electronic Publishing, Archiving and Dissemination of Information and draws heavily on the Archive and Use Policy of the American Institute of Physics to whom we extend our grateful thanks. The terminology is that used in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, Draft Recommendation for Space Data System Standards, Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), CCSDS 650.0-R-1 Red Book, May 1999.
Adopted by the Executive Committee of the International Union of Crystallography on 18 July 2001.
The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) is committed to the archiving viz the long term preservation of and access to the scholarly research information published in electronic form within the IUCr's journals and other publications. This Policy statement defines the extent of the IUCr's archiving commitment and the relevant procedures for fulfilling this commitment.
The IUCr has extensively studied approaches to the archiving of its electronic information according to the following policy, exercising its best effort to adapt to rapidly changing publishing technology and financial models. The IUCr and subscribers understand that because of the still emerging nature of electronic publishing, there are many technical and financial uncertainties about how archiving will be accomplished by any publisher, library or third party. However, the IUCr's intent to provide an archive of all its electronic journals is clear. The IUCr will plan its technical and financial investments accordingly.
The IUCr will act as an archive for all electronic information published by the IUCr. The content of the archive will include all IUCr primary publications in its Crystallography Online Service and the corresponding supplementary publications material. Original information content will never be altered, but may be annotated or supplemented by clearly noted errata, references and other developments that occur subsequent to original publication.
For efficient and secure operation of the online service, the IUCr undertakes to produce dissemination replicates and security replicates of the archive of its electronic publications. Dissemination replicates are used for active delivery to consumers whereas security replicates will not be used for active delivery at any time. The IUCr is responsible for the periodic refreshment of these replicates. At least one complete security replicate will be maintained at a site separate and distant from the IUCr editorial offices in Chester, England. Details of current archiving arrangements for IUCr journals are available here.
The IUCr will ensure access to the archive of its electronic publications and for this service a consumer will be required to pay a subscription or by other means. If publication of a journal is terminated, the IUCr will continue to preserve the journal content for the long term and will charge an appropriate access fee to consumers. In the case that the IUCr should decide to discontinue its activity as a publisher, the IUCr will make its best effort to make arrangements to transmit the electronic publication archive for long-term preservation to a trusted third party acceptable to the user community.
For the purposes of long term preservation, the IUCr will review available technologies at appropriate intervals and undertake digital migration of the content and associated information. The initial content information will be in the predominant current standard (e.g. SGML-based) with suitable current standard-based storage formats for figures, page images, and other information forms as they develop. Digital migration to new formats will be undertaken when current formats are in danger of becoming obsolete or unsupportable, or when new formats provide substantial improvements in features with no loss of content.
The IUCr is responsible for the long-term preservation of journal articles and other materials stored within its archive. The IUCr declines all responsibility for the long term preservation, replication, refreshment and repackaging of any electronic information disseminated to a consumer from the archive. In particular, the IUCr has no responsibility for the maintenance of electronic collections of page images and for the maintenance of electronic offprints distributed to authors. New copies of these materials in the then-current technology may be purchased from the IUCr at the current rates.
Usage rights of active institutional subscribers will be governed by the then current Terms and Conditions of Use for Institutional Subscribers. A subscription fee for the current term must also have been paid. Distribution to parties beyond that defined in the Terms and Conditions of Use may be permitted upon explicit agreement with the IUCr. Additional rights may be provided to institutions purchasing extended access methods.
Usage rights of active personal subscribers will be governed by the then current Terms and Conditions of Use for Personal Subscribers.
Subscribers will be able to purchase an electronic collection of page images of that term's material at the end of each subscription term. The same usage rights as for active subscribers apply to the use of this electronic collection of page images. Upon lapse of subscription, no additional service is provided. The IUCr will make back issues of electronic collections of page images available with the then-current technology at the then-current pricing schedule.
It is important to note that although the IUCr will make available an electronic collection of page images of material covering a specific subscription term, the electronic collection of page images may not contain all linking and other features inherent in the online version of the journal available to active subscribers. The IUCr does not guarantee that links and other features intended to function within an active subscription will continue to be available in the years following delivery of the electronic collection of page images.
Pay-per-article access will be provided. Dissemination information packages containing current or back materials will be made available at the then current pricing schedule.
The IUCr's position regarding fair use in the online environment is evolving in response to the ongoing discussions in the library and publishing community. It was felt that evolving issues such as how fair use applies in the online environment were best handled in the Terms and Conditions of Use, where it is possible to respond faster to changes in current thinking and practice.
The IUCr will choose sites for dissemination replicates in order to provide an online service that is as rapid and as efficient as possible for a large number of consumers. The IUCr will choose sites for security replicates only after careful discussions with administrative representatives of the proposed site and representatives of the library community to ensure that the site(s) that are chosen will agree to participate on time scales measured in decades, not just years. Consideration will also be given to sites offering wide geographic separation from the IUCr's Chester, England, Editorial Offices.
The IUCr is still studying this issue. For the first few years, it will be possible to fund archive maintenance and preservation tasks out of general revenues, but as time goes on, this will become more difficult. A variety of approaches is being studied, including set-aside of a portion of subscription revenues, separation of subscriptions into current awareness and back collection portions, and other options.
The OAIS report defines 'Refreshment' as a digital migration where the effect is to replace a media instance with a copy that is sufficiently exact that all archival storage hardware and software continues to run as before.
The OAIS report defines 'Digital Migration' as the transfer of digital information, while intending to preserve it, within the OAIS . It is distinguished from transfers in general by three attributes: (a) a focus on the preservation of the full information content; (b) a perspective that the new archival implementation of the information is a replacement for the old; and (c) an understanding that full control and responsibility over all aspects of the transfer resides with the OAIS.
The IUCr is still considering what will be included. At a minimum, the electronic collection of page images will include PDF files for all articles and tables of contents and SGML files of bibliographic and classification information (including abstracts).
It is our intent that such collections will always be priced at a point that will just cover its production and replication costs. Please consult the information on Prices and Ordering for IUCr Journals for current prices.
The terminology is that used in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, Draft Recommendation for Space Data System Standards, Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), CCSDS 650.0-R-1 Red Book, May 1999.