January 2014 issue
A pinhole-type ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering set-up that enlarges the accessible q-range to 0.25 µm−1 is described.
An analytical approach describing properties of focused partially coherent X-ray beams is presented.
A laterally graded multilayer Montel mirror with a parabolic figure has been tested and characterized. It exhibits excellent reflectivity and focusing/collimating properties.
Synchrotron X-ray footprinting resources were investigated at a variety of beamlines and synchrotron facilities to understand their potential for a mobile general user. Results indicate that viable resources exist at each synchrotron investigated such that a prospective user need only provide a simple flow apparatus and sample handling accessories to perform this technique.
Concepts and technical realization of the soft-X-ray ARPES facility at the Swiss Light Source are described. Its performance is illustrated by a few scientific applications ranging from three-dimensional materials to buried interfaces and impurities.
A dedicated liquid surface diffractometer employing a tilting double-crystal monochromator in Bragg geometry has been designed. This diffractometer allows reflectivity and grazing-incidence scattering measurements of an immobile mechanical completely decoupled liquid sample from 6.4 to 29.4 keV.
A compound refractive nickel lens focusing 174 keV X-rays to 5 µm with a gain of 4 is presented.
X-ray beam trajectory control has been performed by using a 1.5 m-long flexible hollow glass fibre. A two-dimensional scan of a synchrotron radiation beam was demonstrated for X-ray absorption mapping.
The Bionanoprobe has been developed to study trace elements in frozen-hydrated biological systems with sub-100 nm spatial resolution. Here its performance is demonstrated and first results reported.
A high hydrostatic pressure cell for X-ray reflectivity measurements at the solid/liquid interface is presented.
The dependency of beam intensity on the performance degradation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during X-ray imaging experiments at the Tomcat beamline of the Swiss Light Source is reported and the underlying degradation mechanisms are identified.
An overview of several innovations regarding in situ laser-heating techniques in the diamond anvil cell at the high-pressure beamline ID27 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is presented.
An integration method is demonstrated for directly determining the average interface statistics or, more specifically, power spectral density of periodic multilayers from the X-ray scattering diagram.
A treatment is presented to explain reflectivity curves of finite-size elastically bent analyser crystals for X-ray spectrometry.
A scanning X-ray strain microscopy technique using a micro-focused beam is demonstrated.
Using a high-energy high-resolution synchrotron X-ray beam for powder X-ray diffraction simplifies the analysis of the diffraction pattern to the extent that fitting of any parameter becomes superfluous. A diamond powder pattern has been used as an experimental illustration.
A numerical method of reconstruction of an object image using a dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer hologram is discussed.
The development of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering under high pressure is presented. The pressure evolution of momentum-resolved electronic excitations was obtained in single-crystalline Sr2.5Ca11.5Cu24O41.
Biological apatites have been investigated through XANES–EXAFS spectroscopy and a set of numerical simulations, taking into account local lattice distortion, Ca2+/Sr2+ substitution or the presence of cationic vacancies, have been performed.
The effect of the Ln3+ (Ln = Gd, Dy, Er or Y) co-dopant ions on the reduction of the Eu3+ ions using dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy is shown. The measurements around the Eu LIII-edge in SrO:Al2O3:Eu,Ln were used to propose a mechanism for the Eu reduction and stabilization within the samples.
Morphological and structural characterization of the alterations induced by fossilization processes in Earlymost Villafranchian fossil bones by means of X-ray absorption and fluorescence micro-spectroscopies and optical and scanning electron microscopies.
Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering patterns of Ge nanodots self-organized on Si(001) with soft X-rays showed a strongly anisotropic scattering profile, although the patterns with hard X-rays are symmetric. This apparent difference is explained in terms of the curvature of the Ewald sphere and anisotropic structure factors.
A facile heating cell for in situ transmittance and fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy is described. It provides a novel approach to the design of an in situ cell for synchrotron radiation applications.
An in situ probe for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy has been developed and applied to the study of the bipolar resistive switching mechanism in an Al/graphene oxide/Al resistive random access memory device.
The diffraction of non-monochromatic X-rays by liquids id described.
A single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system for time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser has been developed. The basic performance of the system is demonstrated using XFEL-induced and synchrotron-radiation-induced Ti 1s core-level spectroscopy.
The reliability and effectiveness of small-angle X-ray scattering in detecting liquid jet instability is demonstrated by measuring the jet break-up length for different liquids, flow rates and jet diameter.
A statistical method to merge SAXS profiles using Gaussian processes is presented.
X-ray absorption near-edge structure anomalous behaviour of silicon suboxide layers with silicon and silicon carbide nanocrystals is reported.
Phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography of a cerebral protection device is presented.
A custom-designed nanocalorimeter is implemented on a nano-focus X-ray beamline. The accessory enables measurements of X-ray-induced heating for high-resolution thermal imaging of single microparticles.
Differential phase contrast images acquired simultaneously with fluorescence images offer a robust method for alignment in low-dose X-ray nanotomography data acquisition.
A new experimental set-up enabling microfocus fluorescence XANES mapping and microfocus XRD mapping on the same sample at beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source is described. To demonstrate this set-up the heterogeneous mineralogy in calcium carbonate granules excreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris has been analysed. Data analysis methods have been developed which enable µXRD and µXANES two-dimensional maps to be compared.
It is demonstrated that single-cell resolution can be obtained ex vivo in the brain of small animals using gold nanoparticles with the synchrotron-based computed tomography technique.
An X-ray-transparent experimental environment that allows time-resolved studies of porous rocks under geological reservoir conditions using high-energy synchrotron X-ray microtomography is presented.
A reaction cell designed for in situ X-ray absorption experiments on liquid samples and wet chemical synthesis is presented.
Details of the X-ray lithography beamline on Indus-2 are presented.
The coherent X-ray scattering beamline at PLS-II at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Korea, is introduced.
The BL28XU beamline, dedicated to rechargeable battery analysis, is described.
A new ultrahigh-energy-resolution and wide-energy-range soft X-ray beamline has been designed at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The expected energy resolution is approximately 10 meV at 1000 eV.
A report on the 11th International Conference on Biology and Synchrotron Radiation which took place on 8–11 September 2013, in Hamburg, Germany, is presented.