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ISSN: 1600-5767

X-ray diffraction and imaging special issue (June 2015)

Guest Editor(s): Vincent Favre-Nicolin and Andras Borbely

Guest Co-editor(s): Jose Baruchel, Hubert Renevier and Joel Eymery

This virtual issue of Journal of Applied Crystallography represents some highlights of the 12th Biennial Conference on High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction and Imaging (XTOP). The issue collects together a series of articles originally published in the journal between February and June 2015.

Highlighted illustration

Cover illustration: Visualization of the in situ three-point bending of an Au nanowire by micro Laue diffraction. Courtesy of Leclere et al. [J. Appl. Cryst. (2015), 48, 291–296].

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 620
doi: 10.1107/S160057671500895X
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The latest virtual special issue of Journal of Applied Crystallography includes some highlights of the 12th Conference on High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction and Imaging (XTOP), which took place in Villard-de-Lans and Grenoble in September 2014.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 262-268
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715000849
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X-ray diffraction-based structural analysis results of possible direct bandgap Si/Ge superlattices composed of monolayer thin deposits are presented, together with theoretical predictions and first optical measurements.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 291-296
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715001107
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The in situ three-point bending of a single self-suspended Au nanowire is visualized by micro Laue diffraction. The nanowire deflection is inferred from the displacement of Laue spots and it is well described by finite element analysis taking into account geometric nonlinearities and the elastic constants of bulk Au.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 357-364
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715002447
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Through micro Laue tomography analysis, the depth-resolved cartographies (i) of NiO grains in a solid oxide fuel cell sample and (ii) of the full tensor of the deviatoric strain into a slice of a Ge sample are obtained.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 464-476
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715003593
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Quantitative X-ray phase contrast imaging uniquely offers quantitative imaging information in terms of electron density maps allowing for mass and mass density determinations of soft biological samples (`weighing with light'). Here, it was carried out using coherent X-ray waveguide illumination, yielding values of the mass and mass density of freeze-dried bacterial endospores (Bacillus spp.).

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 510-519
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715004306
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This article details the geometry, peak-picking, calibration and integration procedures on multi- and many-core devices implemented in the Python library for high-performance azimuthal integration.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 528-532
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715004732
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The basis-forbidden Si 200 and Si 222 reflections are investigated in detail as a function of the in-plane sample orientation Φ and the divergence perpendicular to the diffraction plane of the used diffractometer. The results have important consequences for the detection of layer peaks near these reflections.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 621-644
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715005324
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Crystal defects can be identified by their fingerprint in coherent X-ray diffraction patterns. Realistic defects in face-centred cubic nanocrystals are studied numerically, revealing various signatures in diffraction patterns depending on the Miller indices and providing an identification method.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 645-654
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715004926
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Rocking curve imaging (projection and section X-ray topography) has been used to study different kinds of defects such as precipitates, dislocations and twins in directionally solidified mono-like silicon ingots. The qualitative and quantitative information extracted from the reconstructed integrated intensity, FWHM and peak position maps provides clues about the initial stages of silicon growth.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 655-665
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715005397
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The generalization of the theoretical approach suggested by Kaganer et al. [Phys. Rev. B, (1997), 55, 1793–1810] to an arbitrary surface orientation, arbitrary dislocation line direction and noncoplanar measurement scheme was developed. It was applied to study the dislocation microstructure of Ge films on Si(011) and Si(111) based on a set of reciprocal space maps and profiles measured in noncoplanar geometry.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 666-671
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715006809
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It is demonstrated that crystals with curved diffracting planes made of relatively light elements, such as silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide, in the Laue diffraction geometry and in an energy range between 60 and 600 keV can reach a higher diffraction efficiency than more dense mosaic crystals such as copper, silver and gold. In particular, self-standing curved crystals can be used as elements in γ-ray lenses.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 672-678
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715006342
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Both optical microscopy with polarized light and polychromatic beam synchrotron X-ray diffraction imaging (white-beam topography) are used to study in situ the way an ice single-crystal deforms.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 679-689
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715006986
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A method for the simulation of the diffractometer instrumental function for high-resolution X-ray diffraction, applicable for coplanar and noncoplanar measurement geometry and for any combination of X-ray optical elements, is proposed. Good agreement is demonstrated between the measured and the simulated reciprocal-space maps, which account for the instrumental function.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 690-692
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715008900
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Monte Carlo simulation of the dose distribution in water around magnetite nanoparticles irradiated by monochromatic X-rays is presented.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 693-701
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715006214
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Structural changes in vertebrate bone tissues caused by bone growth or by weightlessness were studied using a combination of X-ray tomography at different wavelengths and X-ray fluorescence analysis.

J. Appl. Cryst. (2015). 48, 702-710
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715009954
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A laboratory X-ray diffraction setup is reported, which allows quantitative characterization of the microtwin and antiphase domain densities in epitaxial GaP/Si thin layers.
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